Environment Education And Water Security
How can environment education help improve water security? – Water security is a growing concern in many parts of the world. A lack of access to clean water can lead to serious health problems, and even conflict. Environment education can help improve water security by teaching people about the importance of water conservation and proper sanitation.

  1. This knowledge can help people make better decisions about how to use water, and ultimately lead to less water being wasted.
  2. In addition, environment education can help people understand the interconnectedness of the water cycle.
  3. Many people are unaware that the water they use today may one day end up back in their tap.

By understanding this cycle, people can be more mindful of their impact on the environment and work to reduce pollution and protect natural resources.
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What is water security?

Water Resources Management Today, most countries are placing unprecedented pressure on water resources. The global population is growing fast, and estimates show that with current practices, the world will face a 40% shortfall between forecast demand and available supply of water by 2030.

Furthermore, chronic water scarcity, hydrological uncertainty, and extreme weather events (floods and droughts) are perceived as some of the biggest threats to global prosperity and stability. Acknowledgment of the role that water scarcity and drought are playing in aggravating fragility and conflict is increasing.

Feeding, (which consumes 70% of the resource today), and a 15% increase in water withdrawals. Besides this increasing demand, the resource is already scarce in many parts of the world. Estimates indicate that over 40% of the world population live in water scarce areas, and approximately ¼ of world’s GDP is exposed to this challenge.

Water security is a major – and often growing –challenge for many countries today. Climate change will worsen the situation by altering hydrological cycles, making water more unpredictable and increasing the frequency and intensity of floods and droughts. The roughly 1 billion people living in monsoonal basins and the 500 million people living in deltas are especially vulnerable.

Flood damages are estimated around $120 billion per year (only from property damage), and droughts pose, among others, constraints to the rural poor, highly dependent on rainfall variability for subsistence. The fragmentation of this resource also constrains water security.

There are 276 transboundary basins, shared by 148 countries, which account for 60% of the global freshwater flow. Similarly, 300 aquifers systems are transboundary in nature, with 2.5 billion people worldwide are dependent on groundwater. The challenges of fragmentation are often replicated at the national scale, meaning cooperation is needed to achieve optimal water resources management and development solutions for all riparians.

To deal with these complex and interlinked water challenges, countries will need to improve the way they manage their water resources and associated services. To strengthen water security against this backdrop of increasing demand, water scarcity, growing uncertainty, greater extremes, and fragmentation challenges, clients will need to invest in institutional strengthening, information management, and (natural and man-made) infrastructure development.

Institutional tools such as legal and regulatory frameworks, water pricing, and incentives are needed to better allocate, regulate, and conserve water resources. Information systems are needed for resource monitoring, decision making under uncertainty, systems analyses, and hydro-meteorological forecast and warning.

Investments in innovative technologies for enhancing productivity, conserving and protecting resources, recycling storm water and wastewater, and developing non-conventional water sources should be explored in addition to seeking opportunities for enhanced water storage, including aquifer recharge and recovery.

  1. Ensuring the rapid dissemination and appropriate adaptation or application of these advances will be a key to strengthening global water security.
  2. Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 The World Bank is committed to assisting countries meet their economic growth and poverty reduction targets based on the Sustainable Development Goals ().

Particularly, water resource management is tackled in SDG 6.5, but other SDGs and targets require water resource management for their achievement. Accordingly, the Bank has a major interest in helping countries achieve water security through sound and robust water resource management.

  • Water security is the goal of water resources management,
  • For a rapidly growing and urbanizing global population, against a backdrop of increasing climatic and non-climatic uncertainties, it is not possible to “predict and plan” a single path to water security.
  • To strengthen water security we need to build capacity, adaptability, and resilience for the future planning and management of water resources.

Water Resources Management (WRM) is the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources, in terms of both water quantity and quality, across all water uses. It includes the institutions, infrastructure, incentives, and information systems that support and guide water management.

Water resources management seeks to harness the benefits of water by ensuring there is sufficient water of adequate quality for drinking water and sanitation services, food production, energy generation, inland water transport, and water-based recreational, as well as sustaining healthy water-dependent ecosystems and protecting the aesthetic and spiritual values of lakes, rivers, and estuaries.

Water resource management also entails managing water-related risks, including floods, drought, and contamination. The complexity of relationships between water and households, economies, and ecosystems, requires integrated management that accounts for the synergies and tradeoffs of water’s great number uses and values.

Water security is achieved when water’s productive potential is leveraged and its destructive potential is managed, Water security differs from concepts of food security or energy security because the challenge is not only one of securing adequate resource provision – but also of mitigating the hazards that water presents where it is not well managed.

Water security reflects the actions that can or have been taken to ensure sustainable water resource use, to deliver reliable water services, and to manage and mitigate water-related risks. Water security suggests a dynamic construct that goes beyond single-issue goals such as water scarcity, pollution, or access to water and sanitation, to think more broadly about societies’ expectations, choices, and achievements with respect to water management.

  1. It is a dynamic policy goal, which changes as societies’ values and economic well-being evolve, and as exposure to and societies’ tolerance of water-related risks change.
  2. It must contend with issues of equity.
  3. The Water Security and Integrated Water Resources Management Global Solutions Group (GSG) supports the Bank’s analytical, advisory, and operational engagements to help clients achieve their goals of water security.

Achieving water security in the context of growing water scarcity, greater unpredictability, degrading water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and more frequent droughts and floods, will require a more integrated and longer-term approach to water management.

  • Ey areas of focus will be ensuring sustainability of water resources, building climate resilience, and strengthening integrated management to achieve the Global Practice’s (GP) goals and the SDGs.
  • The GSG will work with a multiple GPs and Cross Cutting Solutions Areas (CCSAs) directly through water resources management or multi-sectoral projects and indirectly through agriculture, energy, environment, climate, or urban projects.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 Robust water resource management solutions to complex water issues incorporate cutting-edge knowledge and innovation, which are integrated into water projects to strengthen their impact. New knowledge that draws on the World Bank Group’s global experiences, as well as partner expertise, are filling global knowledge gaps and transforming the design of water investment projects to deliver results.

  1. Multi-year, programmatic engagements in strategic areas are designed to make dramatic economic improvements in the long term and improve the livelihoods of millions of the world’s poorest people.
  2. The is an analytical framework that can be used to examine the status and trends related to water resources, water services, and water-related risks, including climate change, transboundary waters, and virtual water trade.

The framework helps countries determine if and to what extent water-related factors impact people, the economy, and the environment, and determine if and to what extent water-related factors provide opportunities for development and well-being. The World Bank is proactively working to address new global challenges, by adapting its operations to reach those that most need it today.

  • Working across sectors is ensuring that water considerations are addressed in energy, the environment, agriculture, urban and rural development, and within new global challenges.
  • The Bank also supports transformational engagements and initiatives, which seek to optimize spatial, green, and co-benefits among water and other infrastructure sectors.

A large proportion of World Bank-funded water resources management projects include institutional and policy components. Recent initiatives include:

Through the, Brazil’s federal government sought to integrate the water sector by improving coordination among and strengthening the capacity of the sector’s key federal institutions. In an ambitious innovation, the World Bank supported the government by helping to bring together the most important federal water sector agencies while supporting ongoing water reforms and institutional strengthening.The in the Bank’s water infrastructure projects has helped place a spotlight on the world’s growing infrastructure crisis, driven by climate change and growing populations. Embedding nature-based solutions into project designs can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience.The publication of a, focuses on the potential for IUWM to address the severe and interrelated water security challenges faced by Indonesian cities.The supported the Government of Tajikistan in improving water resource management at local, basin and national levels, and in increasing crop yields through improved irrigation management. Key to improved irrigation was rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage infrastructure and support to Water Users Associations, which are community-based organizations linking farmers with irrigation service provider.The in Uganda improved the integration of water resources planning, management and development, as well as access to water and sanitation services in priority urban areas. More than 1.01 million people received access to improved water sources, and 25,000 piped household water connections were rehabilitated from 2012-2018.

With 263 international rivers in the world, support for cooperative transboundary water management can make an important contribution towards improving the efficient and equitable management of water resources. The Bank supports transboundary waters through Multi-Donor Trust Funds (MDTF), knowledge pieces, and its lending portfolio:

Central Asia Water & Energy Program () is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the European Commission, the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, UK AID, and DFID. The MDTF is building energy and water security by leveraging the benefits of enhanced cooperation in Central Asia, including all five Central Asian countries plus Afghanistan.The Cooperation for International Waters in Africa is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by Denmark, European Commission, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The trust fund finances upstream work in African International Rivers, 75% of which go to four priority basins – Nile, Niger, Volta, and Zambezi. The South Asia Water Initiative is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the governments of the United Kingdom, Australia, and Norway in South Asia. The trust fund provides recipient executed grants to initiatives in the major Himalayan River systems – the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra.In the Mekong River Basin, the Bank is supporting riparian states such as, the, and in strengthening their integrated water resource management and disaster risk management capacities, cooperating closely with the basin-wide Mekong River Commission.The Bank is also investing in knowledge pieces such as ROTI ( Retooling Operations with Transboundary Impacts ) to identify tools that promote riparian country coordination aimed at mitigating transboundary harm and leveraging benefits of investments in transboundary basins.

The Bank follows an integrated flood management agenda, which includes well-functioning early warning systems, infrastructure, and institutional arrangements for coordinated action to address increased variability and changes to runoff and flooding patterns.

  • In addition, a new perspective, referred to as an “EPIC Response,” is offered to better manage hydro-climatic risks: This perspective looks at floods and droughts not as independent events but rather as different ends of the same hydro-climatic spectrum that are inextricably linked.
  • The provides a comprehensive framework to help national governments lead a whole-of-society effort to manage these risks.

Water scarcity is also addressed in:

, initially focusing on the Middle East and North Africa () region, seeking to bolster the adoption of integrated approaches to managing water resources and service delivery in water scarce cities as the basis for water security and climate resilience. Small Island States, The challenges and innovations of water management in small island states can be particularly vivid. These countries warrant particular attention not only because they are often neglected, but also because they provide an opportunity to focus on intensive reuse and non-conventional water resources development, which will be increasingly important knowledge for implementation in megacities and extremely water scarce settings. A scoping study is proposed on the state-of-the-art and the Bank’s portfolio.

Sustainable groundwater management is also a priority of the World Bank, and central to water security in many countries.

Recognizing that groundwater is being depleted faster than it is replenished in many areas, the World Bank has collaborated with key global partners through years of consultations to develop a framework for groundwater governance. The represents a bold call for collectively responsible action among governments and the global community to ensure sustainable use of groundwater.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 : Water Resources Management
View complete answer

How can we strengthen water security?

Water Resources Management Today, most countries are placing unprecedented pressure on water resources. The global population is growing fast, and estimates show that with current practices, the world will face a 40% shortfall between forecast demand and available supply of water by 2030.

  1. Furthermore, chronic water scarcity, hydrological uncertainty, and extreme weather events (floods and droughts) are perceived as some of the biggest threats to global prosperity and stability.
  2. Acknowledgment of the role that water scarcity and drought are playing in aggravating fragility and conflict is increasing.

Feeding, (which consumes 70% of the resource today), and a 15% increase in water withdrawals. Besides this increasing demand, the resource is already scarce in many parts of the world. Estimates indicate that over 40% of the world population live in water scarce areas, and approximately ¼ of world’s GDP is exposed to this challenge.

  1. Water security is a major – and often growing –challenge for many countries today.
  2. Climate change will worsen the situation by altering hydrological cycles, making water more unpredictable and increasing the frequency and intensity of floods and droughts.
  3. The roughly 1 billion people living in monsoonal basins and the 500 million people living in deltas are especially vulnerable.

Flood damages are estimated around $120 billion per year (only from property damage), and droughts pose, among others, constraints to the rural poor, highly dependent on rainfall variability for subsistence. The fragmentation of this resource also constrains water security.

  1. There are 276 transboundary basins, shared by 148 countries, which account for 60% of the global freshwater flow.
  2. Similarly, 300 aquifers systems are transboundary in nature, with 2.5 billion people worldwide are dependent on groundwater.
  3. The challenges of fragmentation are often replicated at the national scale, meaning cooperation is needed to achieve optimal water resources management and development solutions for all riparians.

To deal with these complex and interlinked water challenges, countries will need to improve the way they manage their water resources and associated services. To strengthen water security against this backdrop of increasing demand, water scarcity, growing uncertainty, greater extremes, and fragmentation challenges, clients will need to invest in institutional strengthening, information management, and (natural and man-made) infrastructure development.

  • Institutional tools such as legal and regulatory frameworks, water pricing, and incentives are needed to better allocate, regulate, and conserve water resources.
  • Information systems are needed for resource monitoring, decision making under uncertainty, systems analyses, and hydro-meteorological forecast and warning.

Investments in innovative technologies for enhancing productivity, conserving and protecting resources, recycling storm water and wastewater, and developing non-conventional water sources should be explored in addition to seeking opportunities for enhanced water storage, including aquifer recharge and recovery.

  • Ensuring the rapid dissemination and appropriate adaptation or application of these advances will be a key to strengthening global water security.
  • Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 The World Bank is committed to assisting countries meet their economic growth and poverty reduction targets based on the Sustainable Development Goals ().

Particularly, water resource management is tackled in SDG 6.5, but other SDGs and targets require water resource management for their achievement. Accordingly, the Bank has a major interest in helping countries achieve water security through sound and robust water resource management.

  1. Water security is the goal of water resources management,
  2. For a rapidly growing and urbanizing global population, against a backdrop of increasing climatic and non-climatic uncertainties, it is not possible to “predict and plan” a single path to water security.
  3. To strengthen water security we need to build capacity, adaptability, and resilience for the future planning and management of water resources.

Water Resources Management (WRM) is the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources, in terms of both water quantity and quality, across all water uses. It includes the institutions, infrastructure, incentives, and information systems that support and guide water management.

Water resources management seeks to harness the benefits of water by ensuring there is sufficient water of adequate quality for drinking water and sanitation services, food production, energy generation, inland water transport, and water-based recreational, as well as sustaining healthy water-dependent ecosystems and protecting the aesthetic and spiritual values of lakes, rivers, and estuaries.

Water resource management also entails managing water-related risks, including floods, drought, and contamination. The complexity of relationships between water and households, economies, and ecosystems, requires integrated management that accounts for the synergies and tradeoffs of water’s great number uses and values.

Water security is achieved when water’s productive potential is leveraged and its destructive potential is managed, Water security differs from concepts of food security or energy security because the challenge is not only one of securing adequate resource provision – but also of mitigating the hazards that water presents where it is not well managed.

Water security reflects the actions that can or have been taken to ensure sustainable water resource use, to deliver reliable water services, and to manage and mitigate water-related risks. Water security suggests a dynamic construct that goes beyond single-issue goals such as water scarcity, pollution, or access to water and sanitation, to think more broadly about societies’ expectations, choices, and achievements with respect to water management.

  • It is a dynamic policy goal, which changes as societies’ values and economic well-being evolve, and as exposure to and societies’ tolerance of water-related risks change.
  • It must contend with issues of equity.
  • The Water Security and Integrated Water Resources Management Global Solutions Group (GSG) supports the Bank’s analytical, advisory, and operational engagements to help clients achieve their goals of water security.

Achieving water security in the context of growing water scarcity, greater unpredictability, degrading water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and more frequent droughts and floods, will require a more integrated and longer-term approach to water management.

Key areas of focus will be ensuring sustainability of water resources, building climate resilience, and strengthening integrated management to achieve the Global Practice’s (GP) goals and the SDGs. The GSG will work with a multiple GPs and Cross Cutting Solutions Areas (CCSAs) directly through water resources management or multi-sectoral projects and indirectly through agriculture, energy, environment, climate, or urban projects.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 Robust water resource management solutions to complex water issues incorporate cutting-edge knowledge and innovation, which are integrated into water projects to strengthen their impact. New knowledge that draws on the World Bank Group’s global experiences, as well as partner expertise, are filling global knowledge gaps and transforming the design of water investment projects to deliver results.

Multi-year, programmatic engagements in strategic areas are designed to make dramatic economic improvements in the long term and improve the livelihoods of millions of the world’s poorest people. The is an analytical framework that can be used to examine the status and trends related to water resources, water services, and water-related risks, including climate change, transboundary waters, and virtual water trade.

The framework helps countries determine if and to what extent water-related factors impact people, the economy, and the environment, and determine if and to what extent water-related factors provide opportunities for development and well-being. The World Bank is proactively working to address new global challenges, by adapting its operations to reach those that most need it today.

Working across sectors is ensuring that water considerations are addressed in energy, the environment, agriculture, urban and rural development, and within new global challenges. The Bank also supports transformational engagements and initiatives, which seek to optimize spatial, green, and co-benefits among water and other infrastructure sectors.

A large proportion of World Bank-funded water resources management projects include institutional and policy components. Recent initiatives include:

Through the, Brazil’s federal government sought to integrate the water sector by improving coordination among and strengthening the capacity of the sector’s key federal institutions. In an ambitious innovation, the World Bank supported the government by helping to bring together the most important federal water sector agencies while supporting ongoing water reforms and institutional strengthening.The in the Bank’s water infrastructure projects has helped place a spotlight on the world’s growing infrastructure crisis, driven by climate change and growing populations. Embedding nature-based solutions into project designs can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience.The publication of a, focuses on the potential for IUWM to address the severe and interrelated water security challenges faced by Indonesian cities.The supported the Government of Tajikistan in improving water resource management at local, basin and national levels, and in increasing crop yields through improved irrigation management. Key to improved irrigation was rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage infrastructure and support to Water Users Associations, which are community-based organizations linking farmers with irrigation service provider.The in Uganda improved the integration of water resources planning, management and development, as well as access to water and sanitation services in priority urban areas. More than 1.01 million people received access to improved water sources, and 25,000 piped household water connections were rehabilitated from 2012-2018.

With 263 international rivers in the world, support for cooperative transboundary water management can make an important contribution towards improving the efficient and equitable management of water resources. The Bank supports transboundary waters through Multi-Donor Trust Funds (MDTF), knowledge pieces, and its lending portfolio:

Central Asia Water & Energy Program () is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the European Commission, the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, UK AID, and DFID. The MDTF is building energy and water security by leveraging the benefits of enhanced cooperation in Central Asia, including all five Central Asian countries plus Afghanistan.The Cooperation for International Waters in Africa is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by Denmark, European Commission, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The trust fund finances upstream work in African International Rivers, 75% of which go to four priority basins – Nile, Niger, Volta, and Zambezi. The South Asia Water Initiative is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the governments of the United Kingdom, Australia, and Norway in South Asia. The trust fund provides recipient executed grants to initiatives in the major Himalayan River systems – the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra.In the Mekong River Basin, the Bank is supporting riparian states such as, the, and in strengthening their integrated water resource management and disaster risk management capacities, cooperating closely with the basin-wide Mekong River Commission.The Bank is also investing in knowledge pieces such as ROTI ( Retooling Operations with Transboundary Impacts ) to identify tools that promote riparian country coordination aimed at mitigating transboundary harm and leveraging benefits of investments in transboundary basins.

The Bank follows an integrated flood management agenda, which includes well-functioning early warning systems, infrastructure, and institutional arrangements for coordinated action to address increased variability and changes to runoff and flooding patterns.

  1. In addition, a new perspective, referred to as an “EPIC Response,” is offered to better manage hydro-climatic risks: This perspective looks at floods and droughts not as independent events but rather as different ends of the same hydro-climatic spectrum that are inextricably linked.
  2. The provides a comprehensive framework to help national governments lead a whole-of-society effort to manage these risks.

Water scarcity is also addressed in:

, initially focusing on the Middle East and North Africa () region, seeking to bolster the adoption of integrated approaches to managing water resources and service delivery in water scarce cities as the basis for water security and climate resilience. Small Island States, The challenges and innovations of water management in small island states can be particularly vivid. These countries warrant particular attention not only because they are often neglected, but also because they provide an opportunity to focus on intensive reuse and non-conventional water resources development, which will be increasingly important knowledge for implementation in megacities and extremely water scarce settings. A scoping study is proposed on the state-of-the-art and the Bank’s portfolio.

Sustainable groundwater management is also a priority of the World Bank, and central to water security in many countries.

Recognizing that groundwater is being depleted faster than it is replenished in many areas, the World Bank has collaborated with key global partners through years of consultations to develop a framework for groundwater governance. The represents a bold call for collectively responsible action among governments and the global community to ensure sustainable use of groundwater.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 : Water Resources Management
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Is environment education compulsory at all levels of Education?

Environment education & water security No Text Content! The Coordination Committee formed by GR No. Abhyas – 2116/(Pra.Kra.43/16) SD – 4 Dated 25.04.2016 has given approval to prescribe this textbook in its meeting held on 30.01.2020 and it has been decided to implement it from academic year 2020-21. ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION AND WATER SECURITY STANDARD TWELVE Download DIKSHA App on your smartphone. If you scan the Q.R.Code on this page of your textbook, you will be able to access full text and the audio-visual study material relevant to each lesson provided as teaching and learning aids.2020 Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune. Preface Dear Student/Readers, The Maharashtra State Curriculum Framework 2010 (SCF 2010) has been prepared in accordance to the National Curriculum Framework 2005. The present book is organised according to teaching and learning approaches and materials based on SCF 2010. Hon’ble Supreme Court (SC) has directed that Environment Education (EE) be compulsory at all levels of education. Following the directions given by the SC, EE has been decided to be a separate and compulsory subject at the level of 11th and 12th standard. Maharashtra State has prepared the book which includes major concepts of environment which shall encourage collaborative learning and group activities to facilitate peer learning. The book has been prepared for constructivist approach and activity based teaching-learning. The content has been presented in a graded manner to facilitate knowledge building with the illustrations relevant to the content of the syllabus. The textbook highlights the measures for protection and care of the environment, prevention of pollution and conservation of energy. The topics are included to facilitate understanding of the environment in its totality. Both natural, social and economic processes and their impacts on environment are given and the ways and means to preserve the environment are discussed. The core focus is on interconnected nature of the physical, biological, social, economic system pertinent to environmental issues. The textbook considers appropriate environmental case studies exemplifying how one may view environmental issues from a systems perspective. The teachers are encouraged to emphasise this view and try to apply it during transaction of the syllabus. The students are expected to have acquired adequate understanding of the basics of the various topics by 11th standard and through this book, the students are given a comprehensive view of the environment while dealing with the topics. The curriculum, emphasises student activities as the main vehicle of learning. At the higher secondary stage, to ensure the continuation of proactive action towards the environment, the core course, is considered compulsory qualifying course with a project and activity-based evaluation mode. The textbook expresses concern over the prevailing drought like condition across our country and the state of Maharashtra, where we are facing acute water crisis and witness over-exploitation of groundwater. The textbook calls for immediate water conservation, rainwater harvesting, renovation of water bodies, reduce & reuse of water, watershed development, and afforestation, and drinking water sanitation through community participation at each block or city. There is a pressing immediate need to make this as a mass movement to ensure water security! Different examplar activities and projects are suggested (but not restricted to) in the textbooks to provide exposures to the practical environmental issues providing live contact with the world around them. The project-based learning would ensure learning in the affective domain which would bring forth good, sensitive, rational citizens. A careful planning and preparation can lead to successful implementation of this approach. Expert views and suggestions are included in this book. Use Q.R. Code given in the text book for extra information and reference. Hope that the content of this book will help students and teachers understand and act upon. The Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune, looks forward for feedback and suggestions from teachers, parents and other readers. Pune Vivek Gosavi Date : 21 February 2020 Bharatiya Saur : 2 Phalguna 1941 Director Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune CLASS 12 : ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION AND WATER SECURITY Learning Outcomes Chapter Learning process suggested; Learning outcomes:- The teacher is expected to provide opportunities The students shall be able to ; Chapter 1 to students facilitating learning in groups/ Human and individually and their traditions. To understand the correlation Chapter 2 of the practices of people and its impact on Environmental Develop an understanding of the concepts – environment. Population explosion, Rural and Urban Comprehend the correlation between Pollution settlement, Tribal communities and their environment and related health issues. traditions.  Generate an understanding of the pollution Chapter 3  To realize the environment and health issues. issues of air, water, noise, and solid wastes. Sustainable Understand issue of climate change and its Development Understand the types of pollution as air, impact. water, noise and solid wastes and its impacts etc.  Expose to the concept of sustainable development Understand the concept of events of climate and generates an understanding about the meaning change and its impact. and need.  Understand the challenges for sustainable Elucidate the meaning of sustainable development. development.  Able to grasp importance of sustainable Develop a realization of the need for agriculture. sustainable development. Outline the goals of sustainable development. Comprehend the meaning and importance of sustainable consumption and sustainable agriculture. Chapter 4  Comprehend the meaning of ‘consumer  Acquaint with the meaning of the consumer Practices for education’ education, Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental  Acquaint with the concept of Reduce-Reuse- Environmental Audit, Energy Audit, Eco-labelling, Protection Recycle-Recover (4R), Environmental Impact Ecotourism and understand the importance as Assessment, Environmental Audit, Energy virtuous practices for the environmental protection. Chapter 5 Audit, Eco-labelling, Ecotourism and elaborate  Familiarize with the objectives of different Water Security the importance. world conventions, agreements and their role in Discuss the International conventions and adopting practices for sustainable development. agreements with their role in environment protection in India.  The student realizes the meaning and the facts of drought conditions across our country and the  Make aware of the prevailing drought like State of Maharashtra condition across our country and in the state of Students realize water crisis situation and the Maharashtra. meaning and impacts of overexploitation of Portray the situation of acute water crisis and ground water. witness over-exploitation of groundwater.  Become conscious regarding the meaning of  Make aware regarding the immediate water water conservation, rainwater harvesting, conservation, rainwater harvesting, renovation renovation of water bodies, reduce & reuse of of water bodies, reduce & reuse of water, water, watershed development, and intensive watershed development, afforestation, drinking afforestation, drinking water and sanitation. water and sanitation.  Students realize the need of their role to actively  Generate the attitude to contribute for the participate and contribute in their area for water community programmes for water conservation. conservation.  Ultimately make ‘Water Security’ as an  Students collectively sense the water security immediate concern and convert this to a mass and take up their responsibility for water movement to ensure water security across our conservation. country, making it an added duty of citizen! – For Teachers – To begin with, get familiar with the P Use QR code given in the textbook. textbook yourself. Some websites have been given for reference. A list of references used is P Please refer to the related textbooks of provided. You as well as the students earlier classes before teaching the topics are expected to use these references. of this textbook. These references will surely help you to go beyond the textbook. Please bear P Please plan carefully and independently in mind that extra reading is always for the activities of each chapter. helpful for understanding any subject in depth. P The teaching-learning interactions, processes and participation of all students P The thought-provoking, activity- is necessary through your active oriented, journal assignment work is guidance. considered for evaluation. Some examples are given at the end of the P Please use proper teaching aids in the chapters in the ‘exercise’. class room for appropriate understanding of the subject such as audio-visual aids, P The project is compulsory for each apps etc. student. It should be completed according to the guidelines in \”Project P You are expected to use the given and journal/seminar book\” provided. number of periods fully. Do not finish List of some projects is provided at the the chapter in short. This will help the end of the book. students to assimilate the content without feeling the ‘burden of learning’. P Major concepts of environment have a scientific base and they also deal with social aspects. Encourage group activities, learning through each other’s help etc. Facilitate peer learning as much as possible by recognizing the class structure frequently. P Do not ask questions on statistical information. Instead, ask questions on their trends or patterns. P The present book has been prepared for constructivist and activity-based teaching-learning. P Follow the order of the chapters as given because the concepts have been introduced in a graded manner to facilitate knowledge building. – Contents – Sr. Name of the topic Page No. No.1 to 13 1. Humans and Environment 14 to 32 1.1 Population growth 1.2 Rural and urban settlements 33 to 42 1.3 Indigenous communities and traditions 1.4 Environment and health 43 to 54 1.5 Right to live, human rights and value education 55 to 66 2. Environmental Pollution 67 to 69 70 to 72 2.1 Air pollution 2.2 Climate change 2.3 Soil pollution 2.4 Noise pollution 2.5 Solid waste management 3. Sustainable Development 3.1. Need for sustainable development 3.2. Sustainable Development Goals 3.3. Challenges for sustainable development 3.4. Sustainable Agriculture 3.5. Role of individuals, community and government in sustainable development 4. Practices for Environmental Protection 4.1 Consumer Education 4.2 Eco-labelling 4.3 Environment Impact Assessment 4.4 Green Audit 4.5 Eco-tourism 4.6 International Conventions and agreements 5. Water Security 5.1 Water resources 5.2 Need and importance of water resources 5.3 Water scarcity 5.4 Water contamination 5.5 Water conservation and management methods Glossary Project List Frant cover : Water security and all environment protection measures are shown. Back cover : Sustainable agriculture, use of non-renewable energy resources, eco-friendly articles and water conservation are shown.1. Humans and Environment 1.1 Population growth had acquired enough skills and tools to manipulate the natural world and to some extent had begun to 1.2 Rural and urban settlements carve niches, which were entirely man-made. This led to a faster growth of population, which is 1.3 Indigenous communities and traditions indicated by an addition of more than one hundred million members to the human race, by 1000 C.E.1.4 Environment and health By then various civilizations of human beings were prospering in different parts of the world, 1.5 Right to live, human rights and value and man was ready to take a giant leap. education The next one thousand years saw 1.1 Population growth unprecedented growth in human population, from around 300 million to 6000 million. The industrial The human species dates back to 3 million revolution boosted the growth of human years ago. Until about 12,000 years ago, humans population tremendously. The human population were mostly hunters and gatherers who typically increased by 2000 million in a span of just 25 moved as they needed to find enough food for years between the years 1975 and 2000. survival. Since then, there have been three major cultural changes : Terms frequently used with population growth are described below : (1) Agricultural revolution (which began 10,000- 12,000 years ago), · Birth rate (Natality) : The number of live births per 1000 population in a given year. (2) Industrial revolution (which began about 275 years ago), and · Death rate (Mortality) : The number of deaths per 1000 population in a given year. (3) Information and globalization revolution (which began about 50 years ago). · Growth rate : The number of persons added or subtracted from a population in a These major cultural changes have year due to natural increase and net migration.1. Provided much more energy and new technologies with which to alter and control · Doubling time : The number of years more of the planet to meet our basic needs required for the population of an area to and increasing demands. double its present size given the current rate of population growth.2. Allowed expansion of the human population, mostly because of increased food supplies · Carrying capacity : The maximum and longer life spans. number of individuals of a species that an area can support. Many environmentalists, 3. Increased human environmental impact however believe that there are definite because of increased resource use, pollution limits to growth and the earth’s carrying and environmental degradation. capacity. The growing population has By 1st Christian Era (C.E.) there were more than 170 million human beings on earth. They 1 affected the carrying capacity of the planet It can be seen that curve was flat for a long eventually resulting in a number of time and from about 1650 C.E. it started spiking problems like inadequate resources, and became parallel to y axis. standard of living, unhygienic and improper sanitation facilities etc. Today, due to Mathematically, this is called an exponential population pressures and human impact, curve. The world population started increasing the natural elements like air, water and soil rapidly with the onset of the scientific and have been polluted to a great extent. industrial revolution in Europe. Between 1850 and 1950 the population doubled to 2 billion. The · Ecological balance : The fine balance that 5 billion mark was reached in 1987 and 6 billion exists between living and non-living things, mark in 1999. Right now the world’s population food webs and environmental conditions of is 7.7 billon and India’s population is an ecosystem. approximately more than 1.25 billion. · Population growth rate : The net annual Demographic Transition percentage increase in population. There is a close relationship between · Exponential growth : The growth of a population growth rate and economic quantity with time in such a way that the development. Due to improvement in economic curve is relatively flat in the beginning, but conditions, natality as well as mortality declined becomes steeper and steeper with time (see resulting in low population growth rate in fig.1.1) developed countries. This process is known as demographic transition. Increase in world human population over time The Fig 1.1 shows the growth of population over Demographic transition occurs in four stages time. due to development in industrialization and consequent urbanization. y axis 7.0 1. Pre-industrial Phase : Harsh living conditions lead to a high birth rate (to 6.0 1999 compensate for high infant mortality) and a high death rate. Thus, there is little population 5.0 1987 growth Population in Billion 4.0 1975 2. Transitional Phase : As Industrialization began, food production increased and health 3.0 1960 care improved. At the same time death rates dropped and birth rates remained high, so the 2.0 1930 population growth was rapid. Many countries 1925 such as India, Bolivia and Saudi Arabia were in this category.1.0 1900 1750 3. Industrial Phase : Industrialization is wide- 1650 spread. The birth rate drops and the death rate also decreases. Reasons for this 5000 x axis convergence of rates include better access to 4000 birth control, decline in the infant mortality 3000 rate, increased job opportunities for women 2000 1000 0 1000 2000 BC years AD Fig 1.1 World Population Growth 2 and increased investment in basic education Male Age groups Female for children and other social changes. Most developed countries are now in this third 80-84 stage. This stage is characterized by sudden decline in birth rate and death rate.e.g. China 70-74 and Indonesia.60-64 4. Post-industrial Phase : The birth rate declined even further, equaling the death rate 50-54 and thus reaching a stable population growth. Most of the European Countries are in this 45-49 category.35-39 Age and sex structure of a population in a country may be represented by age and sex 25-29 pyramids through the proportion of males and females in a specific age groups 15-19 0-4 4 2 0 0 2 4 Percentage (%) in age groups Fig 1.3 Pyramid for a developed countries · Population Pyramid : The population iii) Urn shaped Population Pyramid: In this pyramid is a plot of the number of people type of pyramid, the proportion of belonging to various age groups. Population pre-repoductive age group population is very pyramid is an important feature to understand small in comparison to people belonging to a country’s demographic situation. This reproductive age group. This represents information is very useful for the government countries in the post industrial phase. to plan for improvement. Male Years Female 85 i) Pyramid for Developing Countries : In this 80 type of population pyramid, there is large 75 number of young population and the 70 proportion of old people is less.65 55 Age groups 50 45 80-84 40 35 70-74 30 60-64 25 20 15 10 5 Male Female 50-54 9 8 7 6 54 3 2 1 1 2 34 5 67 8 9 Percentage % 45-49 Fig 1.4 Urn shaped population pyramid 35-39 25-29 Do you know? 15-19 There is a big difference in the population growth pattern between the developing and 0-4 the industrialized (developed) nations. Nearly 99 per cent of population increase takes place 987 654 32 1 12 3456 78 9 in developing countries. The population Percentage (%) in age groups remains the same or even declines in the industrialized nations. By 2050, the population Fig 1.2 Pyramid for developing countries ii) Pyramid for Developed Countries : In this type of pyramid, the birth rates and death rates are low.3 of developing countries is likely to go up by Table 1.2 Factors affecting migration 55 per cent. However, the total population of industrialized countries is expected to increase Push factors Pull factors only by about 4 per cent. Unemployment and Better economic Table 1.1 shows the ten most populous under employment prospects countries as of 2018. Economic Higher salary and Population underdevelopment income (crores) Rank Country Low wage and salary Better standard of 1 China 142.8 living 2 India 135.3 Political instability, Good Governance 3 US 32.7 wars etc.4 Indonesia 26.8 5 Brazil 20.9 Disputes and Safety and stability conflicts Lack of freedom Intellectual freedom 6 Pakistan 21.2 Discrimination based 7 Russia 14.6 8 Bangladesh 16.1 on religion and No discrimination 9 Nigeria 19.6 politics Lack of medical care Better medical care facilities 10 Mexico 12.6 1.2 Rural and urban settlements Source: United Nations (UN), 2018 People build houses and develop their settlements to protect themselves from harsh · Migration of people weather conditions and to enjoy their social life. The physical components of settlements comprise Migration is the movement of people from of : one place to another. It leads to increase/decrease in population of a place. Recently migration is 1. Shelter : It includes houses with different becoming major issue all over the world. sizes, types and building materials that people make for security, privacy and · Process of migration protection. · Emigration – Movement of people out of certain area.2. Infrastructure : It includes networks such · Immigration – Entry of people in an area. as roadways, railways, pipelines, cables; · Factors affecting migrations which are used for network for information, goods, water, entertainment and electricity etc.4 Classification of human settlements On the basis of the number of people and their activities, settlements are classified in two groups – rural and urban settlements in India. Human settlements Village : Population 1,00,000 5,000 -99,999 Clustered : Closely packed group of houses Metropolitan City : Population > 10,00,000 Semi-Clustered : houses widely spread along village boundary Mega City : Population > 1,00,00,000 Hamlets : Population less than 50 Isolated huts Problems related to urban and rural · Decreased storage of surface water and settlements : groundwater Urban areas have more environmental problems · Increased flooding as compared to rural areas. · Decreased natural sewage treatment · Urban environmental problems 4. Energy, Air and Climate 1. Land and Biodiversity · Increased energy use and waste · Increased air pollution · Loss of cropland · Increased greenhouse gas emissions · Loss of forests and grasslands · Enhanced global warming · Loss of wetlands · Ozone depletion · Loss and fragmentation of wildlife 5. Economic effects habitats · Higher taxes · Increased wildlife roadkill · Decline of business · Increased soil erosion · Increased unemployment in city 2. Human health and aesthetics of city • Rural environmental problems : · Contaminated drinking water · Poor sanitation · Environmental pollution · Conversion of farm land to residential · Traffic congestion lands · Reduction in aesthetic value of city due to · Lack of drainage facilities waste · Indiscriminate use of pesticides and 3. Water fertilizers · Increased surface runoff · Salination, desertification and degradation · Increased surface water and groundwater of land. pollution 5 1.3 Indigenous communities and traditions Do you know? Indigenous knowledge The Warlis of Maharashtra Indigenous knowledge is the traditional A group of forest tribal communities and local knowledge held by the members of a called the ‘Warli’s live around 100 km from given community. It is related to the Mumbai. They are a good example of the environmental conditions of the community and harmonious relationship that existed enables the community to survive in those between many tribal communities and conditions. Indigenous Knowledge (IK) can be forests. integrated in teaching, so that students can improve their awareness on environmental The ‘Warli’s worship forests and all of conservation and protection. nature as the God Hirva (Green). They consider nature’s produce as Hirva’s gift · Local crops that are used by the communities and not as the fruit of their own labour. The are protected. This helps to conserve the ‘Warli’ culture conserves many plants and biodiversity in their area. animals based on customs and religious beliefs. Sacred groves, which are maintained · Indigenous methods of seed storage help to without any interference of human beings, conserve the genetic resources of crop plants. by tradition and fear of God, are examples of ‘Warli’ conservation. · Some wild plants which serve as food crops are known to indigenous people. This helps The ‘Warli’s act as the caretakers and during droughts when regular food crops not as exploiters of the forest. They take cannot be grown. from the forest just enough for their immediate and basic needs. Trees are never · Indigenous people understand weather destroyed, but twigs and dry fallen branches patterns and are therefore able to predict are collected. They cut branches only from cyclones and storms. those trees whose growth will be improved by such chopping. · Sustainable natural resource management is driven by the beliefs and behavior of human The ‘Warli’s practice organic farming. communities and local cultures. They have evolved a complex system of multicropping, best suited to the short and Tribal people not only in India but also in irregular monsoon. They plant many other parts of the world have been known for their traditional varieties of crops and are able to unique cultural identities since time immemorial. get some harvest even during droughts. They are very close to nature and know about plants and animals. Various plants and animals Tribal communities like the ‘Warli’s are have religious as well as medicinal and economic now in trouble. Forest policies and importance among the whole tribal India. displacement due to development project are changing their lives. When they leave Tribal people are keen to save these biological the forest, their knowledge disappears with resources. Indigenous people and traditional them! communities have a growing interest in being more directly involved in recording, presenting and representing their own cultures to the public. They also wish to own, control and access cultural heritage materials held by cultural institutions.6 Activity 1 kind of human activities are prohibited in sacred groves. · Visit your nearby vegetable market. Case studies : Beej Bachao Andolan (save · Observe and indentify varieties of fruits the seed movement) and vegetables. This movement began in the Himalayan foot-hills. The members have collected seeds · Observe the difference between indigenous of diverse crops in Garhwal. The movement has successfully conserved hundreds of local and hybrid varieties. rice varieties, rajma, pulses, millets, vegetables, spices and herbs. Different · Why are the indigenous varieties not varieties are being grown as an outcome of this programme in local farmer’s fields. cultivated on large scale as compared to This has also been supported by local hybrid varieties? women’s groups. · What action is needed to conserve these Activity 2 local indigenous varieties? Make a group of students and prepare seed banks and seed balls of indigenous Indigenous community practices species. These include local practices of farming, Sacred groves natural resource conservation, environmental protection etc. which have been passed down from These are tracts of forests that are protected in generation to generation. the name of deity. They have religious significance and are, therefore, protected by certain local These practices play a key role in the communities. Hunting, logging, grazing and protection of biodiversity. A number of sacred collection of fire wood are usually strictly groves thrive in India and its neighboring countries prohibited within these patches. The flora and due to the efforts of the indigenous people. They fauna in these forest patches are worshipped by practice their traditional beliefs that help them to the local people. live in harmony with nature. For example – Sacred groves play an important role as a a) The Bishnois worship the Khejari tree and gene bank for biodiversity conservation in many the Black Buck. The tree provides food, areas. fodder and building material to these people.1) Some groves have ponds and streams which b) Devrais in Maharashtra are the small patches supply water to local communities and at the of forests, conserved by local people in the same time help to recharge ground water in name of local deities. the area. The indigenous people of India have played a 2) They are considered as biodiversity areas, vital role in preserving bio-diversity of several providing a refuge for a number of species of virgin forests and have conserved several flora flora and fauna, which are otherwise affected and fauna in sacred groves of tribals. by habitat destruction and hunting in surrounding area. These flora and fauna might have been disappeared from natural ecosystem. The sacred groves are the natural forests which are located in North – East, Central and Peninsular India including Maharashtra. The interference of all 7 Threats to Sacred Groves in India : Eco-friendly practices Sacred groves are under threat due to – · In India, eco-friendly and affordable bullock carts are used by rural folk. Such a) Urbanization, over grazing and excessive carts meet the transportation needs without fuel-wood collection any danger of greenhouse gases emissions. b) Environmental degradation by visitors to · Rural women use cow-dung cakes to meet these groves who go there to perform religious their energy requirements for cooking and practices. heating. c) The changing values, the cultural and · Use of insect-repellant plants, that suppress religious attitude of the people, have created diseases and harmful pests. threats to sacred groves. · Indigenous plant materials that are more What can we do to protect the sacred drought- and pest-resistant should be groves : grown. · Locating sacred groves properly. · Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization of soil and planting · Preparing a detailed inventory of the flora of appropriate crops, planting of and fauna in such groves. leguminous crops, allotting land for watershed. · Assessing the impacts of man-made activities on sacred groves. · Preserving traditional seed varieties are found to be beneficial in conserving the · Assessing external threats to these groves environment. such as cyclones, forest fires, floods etc.1.4 Environment and health Do you know? Natural resources are gift to human life. Good Conservation of indigenous crops – A conditions of air, water, soil and biodiversity community movement enhances our health and wellbeing. When these resources degrade, it ultimately results into ill Seed mother, Rahibai Popre is an Indian health, morbidity and shortening of life span. farmer from village Kombhale, Ahmadnagar district and is a seed conservationist. She has World Health Organization (WHO) has no formal education, but she established a defined, \”Health as a state of complete, physical, seed bank in her house for the conservation mental and social wellbeing; not merely absence and revival of indigenous crop diversity. of disease or infirmity.\” She has conserved and muliplied about Unhealthy environment increases mental 43 ‘landraces’ of 17 crop varities including stress, anxieties, chances of cancer and other paddy, hyacinth bean, millets, pulses, oil seeds etc. She works with 3,500 farmers in Ahmadnagar district, sharing her traditional knowledge and experiments thus promoting agro-biodiversity. For this, she has been honoured by ‘Padmashri’ award.8 diseases. It also increases the disabilities of body Particulate matter (sizes 2.5 mm – 10 mm) organs. It increases strain on physical capabilities (soot and dust), toxic gases and agrochemicals and affects reproductive capacities also. are responsible for degradation of air quality. It results into unwanted and unexpected situations. Industrialization and over consumerism are main causes of natural resources pollution. The 1. Two weeks of office and school work was destruction of natural habitat by pollution affects stopped in Delhi in 2018 due to air pollution. agriculture, animal husbandry, aquatic flora and fauna. Increasing malnutrition, poverty etc.2. More than 3 million deaths occur in India changes environmental conditions resulting in due to air pollution. outbreak of different diseases.3. Inhalation of pariculate matter causes heart, · Water and Health respiratory and lung disorders, increased risk of cancer. The availability of water resources and quality of water is being degraded day-by-day in 4. Global warming by green house gases India. It results into harmful effects. increases commumicable and skin disease.1. More than 50% of population of the country 5. Vehicular pollution soot, CO2, cause irritation does not have access to potable water. of eye, nose and increased asthmatic condition and bronchitis.2.80% diseases are water borne. Unclean and poor water conditions kill more than 13 6. Smog results in respiratory diseases, million people per year. decreasing visibility and taking lives in accidents.3. Discharge of untreated sewage and organic load in water bodies increases chances of 7. Congested overcrowded and unhygienic cholera, typhoid, diarrhea and hepatitis. conditions increase microbial growth and air borne diseases such as T.B., pneumonia, 4. Different types of untreated toxic effluents, polio, whooping cough etc in children. heavy metals are discharged in water by industries. The basic necessity of life is pure air. If its quality is degraded, it hits life of all organisms 5. Leaching and seeping of agrochemicals such as pesticides, synthetic organic chemicals Case study: Delhi pollution and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) get released in surface and ground water It was in October 2016, Delhi faced one affecting human health. of its worst smog episodes. The Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 levels rose to 750 · Air and Health micrograms/cubic mm; that is 12 times the permissible level. Very poor visibility, Air is mixture of different gases. The cancellation of flights, school closure were composition of air is altered by primary and few of the features of this incidence. The secondary pollutants. It changes quality of air and smog is made up of particles and toxic causes harm to health of organisms and human chemicals. Merely breathing in this air was being. Air is a movable entity, it affects global health.9 like smoking 50 cigarettes in a day. Indian · Soil and Health government declared this situation as an emergency. Health is deteriorated due to contaminated food which results due to inappropriate As a part of the action plan, Delhi agricultural practices. government planned to shift all petrol and diesel vehicles to clean fuels like compressed Non-biodegradable compounds, chemicals, natural gas (CNG). It was the first time in POPs are entering in food and food chain resulting India that CNG was introduced for public their bio magnification. Consumption of such transport effectively. Delhi government also contaminated food disturbs the various systems of moved highly polluting industries out of the body causing diseases such as cancer and Delhi region. infertility. Burning of crop residues also intensified Biomedical wastes added to soil, affect soil during the years between 2010 to 2019. flora and fauna. Radioactive products, heavy Multiple new settlements and construction metals mixed by e-waste, chemical waste causes activities boomed. The population of Delhi various diseases in plants, animals and humans. and National Capital Region (NCR) increased from 16.6 million in 2001 to 46.1 · Radioactivity and Health million in 2011. The measures adopted to control air pollution mainly related to Nuclear tests, the warfare in countries and monitoring during this period were accidents in radioactive nuclear plants destroy noteworthy. environment in that area. Delhi government took steps to curb the Uranium – 235, Strontium – 90, Iodine – 131, number of private vehicles. The popular Cesium – 137 are major radioactive pollutants ‘Odd – Even ‘measure of private vehicles released in the environment due to different having odd vehicle numbers on odd dates and activities. even numbers on even dates; was intended to reduce vehicular emission and traffic Accumulation of radionuclides in human congestion. This lead to city wide discussion tissues leads to cancer, gene mutation, which also on air pollution and its sources. There were results in birth of abnormal babies with malformed further restrictions brought e.g. ban on diesel organs. generator sets in Delhi, the closure of brick kilns, stone crushers across NCR, and shut 1.5 Right to live, human rights and value down of Badrapur power plant in winter were education some of the steps taken after 2016 smog. Presently medium to long term measures are · Environmental ethics planned for pollution control with a detailed timeline for its implementation. It studies the relation of human beings with the environment. It believes that humans are part of the environment along with other living creatures. It is important to understand that the health of humans is closely linked to ecosystem health.10 Guiding Principles of Environmental Ethics 2. Right to enjoy natural ecosystems and their rich biodiversity in just and equitable manner.1. All species have equal right to all resources and also have right to compete for equal 3. Right of humans to lead dignified life and opportunities and comfort. legitimate needs.2. The right of the environment should take 4. Right to take environmental information, precedence over the right of individual as it is education, participation in environmental linked to the welfare of entire life. discussion and create awareness. · Right to Live 5. Right of future generations to fulfill their own needs. The different types of pollution are deteriorating environment. Some species have Do you know? become endangered and few have become extinct due to loss of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They United Nations (UN) also mentioned the are struggling for proper environment. Do they duties of human beings to cherish proper have right to live on earth or Not? Man is not only human rights such as – harvester of natural environment, he is one of the species amongst millions of species. All the 1. Protection of environment. creatures of nature have equal right to live and 2. Preservation of good status of cherish it for whole span of life. Humans must environment. realize and admit that they can not live on earth 3. Prevention of environmental harm. alone. All other biodiversity is the support system 4. Accept thresholds / limits of use of for them. So we need to think about rights of nature and natural resources. nature. We must accept these rights i.e. all organisms have right to live in a peaceful, good · Value Education and clean environment, compassion to life and with, equal right to natural resources. We must Ancient India had developed values in human think about right to biodiversity, right to protect being by family and Gurukul education. The value culture of the creature. This will help to sustain education is the process of learning life principles the environment. which decides virtues of a person in the family and the society. · Human Rights and Environment The character of a person is developed by United Nation (UN) has linked Human Rights having values like evironmental ethics, natural and Environment in 1994 draft. It described to principles, truthfulness, honesty, peace, non- accept the rights of everyone to secure healthy and violence, integrity, righteousness, civic sense, ecologically sound environment. respect to all nature’s laws. The Indian constitution added more values as sovereighty, secularism, 1. Human rights to healthy, safe and secure socialism, democracy, republican character, equal environment. It must be free from pollution justice, unity, integrity of nation and dignity of all and degradation of air, water and other individuals. environmental resources. Value education in reference to environment is expected to bring about a thinking for 11 sustainable lifestyle for everyone in the society, support a sustainable form of development so Environmental values need to be inculcated that we do not have to bear the cost of through a process of appreciating our environmental degradation. environmental assets and act for conservation of these assets. We consider economic growth as Each action by an individual must be linked most important and this mindset must change and to its environmental consequences in his/her everyone should think and act for sustainable mind, so that a value is created that strengthens development. pro-environmental behaviour and prevents anti- environmental actions. This cannot happen Every human being should have feelings unless new educational processes are created and respect for different aspects of his or her that provide value education right from an early surroundings. The values for the resources of age. nature should not be only utilitarian importance alone. The true environmental values go beyond At the community level, this occurs only valuing a river for its water, a forest for its timber when a critical number of people become and other resources, or the sea for its fish. environmentally conscious so that they constitute Environmental values should have a feeling to a pro-environment lobbying force that makes bring about sensitivity for preserving nature as a governments and other people accept good whole. Our environmental values should have environmental behaviour as an important part of pro-conservation actions in day-to-day activities. development. Most of our actions have adverse environmental impacts unless we consciously avoid them. Environmental values are linked to varied environmental concerns. While we value Values lead to a process of decision making resources that we use as food, water and other which leads to action. For value education in products, there are also environmental services relation to the environment, this process is learned that we must appreciate. These include nature’s by an understanding and appreciation of nature’s mechanisms in cleaning up air by removal of oneness and the importance of its conservation. carbon dioxide and addition of oxygen by plant life, recycling water through the water cycle of With the small human population in the past, nature and maintaining climate regimes. throwing away a little household degradable garbage could not have been considered wrong. However, there are other aesthetic, ethical But with enormous numbers of people throwing values that are equally important aspects of our away large quantities of non-degradable waste, it environment that we do not appreciate is indeed extremely damaging to the environment consciously. The tiger’s magnificence, the whale and our value system must prevent all this through and elephant’s giant size,, the graceful flight of a strong environmental value education system. a flock of cranes, are all parts of nature that we admire. The lush evergreen forest, the great Appreciating the negative effects of our power of the ocean’s waves, and the tranquility actions on the environment must become a part of the Himalayan mountains are things that each of our day-to-day thinking. While we do need of us value even if we do not experience it economic development, our value system must ourselves. We value its being there on earth for change to one that makes people everywhere us. This is called its ‘existence value’.12 Environmental values must also stress on the Exercise for importance of preserving ancient structures. The Journal Assignment characteristic architecture, sculpture, artworks and crafts of ancient cultures are invaluable 1) Explain various factors, responsible environmental assets. Unless we learn to value for migration of peple. these landscapes and preserve them, they will disappear and our heritage will be lost.2) Explain the importance of sacred groves. Apart from valuing the diversity of life itself, we must also learn to value and respect diverse 3) Write down the eco friendly practices human cultures. Many of the tribal cultures of our that you can follow in your country are vanishing and along with them the day-to-day life. traditional knowledge that they have.4) How the population pyramid explains The equitable use of resources is an essential demography of a country? aspect of human well-being and must become a part of all socially and environmentally conscious 5) What are different environmental individuals. Our environment has a major factors, that affect human health? component that does not belong to any one individual. There are several commonly owned 6) Explain environmental ethics with resources that all of us use as a community. The the help of an example. rivers, lakes ec are common property resources and they need to be protected and conserved for 7) Suggest major improvements for the society. sustainable future of human and environment.8) Explain environmental problems of your locality. ** ** ** ** 13 2. Environmental Pollution 2.1 Air pollution defined as, “Any solid, liquid or gaseous 2.2 Climate change substance present in such concentration 2.3 Soil pollution which may be or may tend to be injurious to 2.4 Noise pollution the environment.” 2.5 Solid waste management 2.1 Air pollution Environmental pollution is one of the major threats to mankind. Population explosion, Air pollution is the entry of unwanted uncontrolled industrialization, urbanization and particulate matter, biomolecules or other exploitation of natural resources lead to harmful materials into the Earth’s atmosphere. environmental pollution. The serious ecological It causes diseases, death to humans and damage imbalance is due to environmental pollution. to other living organisms. The three basic amenities for all living organisms i.e. water, land and air become According to The Air (Prevention and polluted because of various anthropogenic Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, “Air pollution activities. is the presence of any solid, liquid, or gaseous substances in the atmosphere in such Pollution can be defined as, “An undesirable concentration as may be or tend to be injurious change in the physical, chemical or biological to human beings or other living creatures or characteristics of air, water and soil that may plants or property or environment.” harmfully affect life or create a potential health hazard for any living organism.” Air Pollutants Do you know? The major air pollutants are as follows : A new report by the World Health 1) Particulate matter – Soot, smoke, tar or dust and domestic wastes. Organization (WHO) reveals that 24% of 2) Toxic Gases – Carbon Monoxide (CO), global diseases and 23% of all deaths are Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Oxides of Sulphur (SOx), Halogens (chlorine, caused by environmental exposures. Many bromine and iodine) and volatile organic compounds. of these can be prevented by better 3) Metals – Lead, zinc, iron and chromium. environmental management. Four diseases 4) Industrial pollutants – Benzene, ether, most influenced by poor environment are acetic acid etc. and cyanide compounds. diarrhea, respiratory infections, 5) Agricultural pollutants – Pesticides, herbicides and fungicides, Chemical unintentional injuries and malaria. fertilizers. An agent which causes pollution is termed as pollutant. Pollutants can be 14 6) Photochemical pollutants – Ozone, Oxides Natural sources of pollution are those that of Nitrogen (Nox), aldehydes, ethylene, are caused due to natural phenomena such as photochemical smog and Peroxy Acetyl volcanic eruptions, forest fires, biological Nitrate (PAN) and Oxides of Sulphur decay, pollen grains, marshes, radioactive (SOx). materials etc.7) Radiation pollutants – Radioactive Anthropogenic/man-made sources of substances and radioactive fall-outs of the pollution are those which are created by human nuclear test. activities. These include indoor air pollutants, vehicular emissions, fossil fuel burning, Sources of air pollution agricultural activities, industrial emissions and thermal power plants etc. The basic sources of air pollution are natural and anthropogenic/man-made. Effects of Air Pollution Table 2.1: Some major pollutants and their effects Pollutants Effects on human health Effects on environment Sulphur oxides Respiratory problems, heart and lung Chlorosis, death of plant (SOx) disorders, visual impairment tissues Nitrogen oxides Generates PAN, Pulmonary disorders, Acid rain reduces crop yields. (NOx) Respiratory infections, very toxic at high concentrations Aerosols (Dust, Interferes with ability of lungs to Influence climate by scattering smoke, smog) exchange gases light Particulate matter Respiratory problems, asthma, bronchitis, Adverse effect on biodiversity (PM) PM2.5 and reduced lung function, lung/liver fibrosis, Accumulation of soot or black PM10 heart stroke, bone problems, cancer, layer on the leaves. heavy metal poisoning Carbon monoxide Reduces oxygen carrying capacity of Global warming (CO) blood, cardiovascular problems. Infants, pregnant women, and elderly people are at higher risk. Ozone Tropospheric ozone causes respiratory Adverse effects on plants. (O3) problems such as throat irritation, Assist in the formation of asthma, bronchitis, chest pain, etc. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), Lead (Pb) acts as green house gas. Ammonia (NH3) Affects blood, nervous system Increase in atmospheric lead due to vehicular emissions Burning of eyes, nose, throat and respiratory track. Prolonged effects result Affects aquatic organisms in blindness, lung damage or death.15 Air Quality Index (AQI) Do you know? Air Quality Index is the index used to show The Government has taken following steps level of air pollution in particular area. It is used to control air pollution : by goverment to communicate to public about the quality of air. Public health risks increase as · Establishment of Ambient Air Quality AQI rises. Monitoring throughout India. Table 2.2 Air Quality Index (AQI) · Notification of Ambient Air Quality Standards under Environment Air Quality Index (AQI) (Protection) Act. AQI Values Levels of health · Notification of vehicular emission norms concern for year 1990-91,1996, 1998, 2000, 2001.0-50 Good · Improving fuel quality by phasing out 51-100 Satisfactory lead from gasoline, reducing diesel Sulphur, reducing gasoline benzene etc.101-200 Moderately-polluted Blending of ethanol with petrol and diesel.201-300 Poor · Introduction of alternate fueled vehicles like electric, CNG/LPG and hybrid.301-400 Very poor · Improvement in public transport system.401-500 Severe · Phasing out of grossly polluting Control Measures of Air Pollution commercial vehicles. Following measures have been suggested to · Public awareness and campaigns. control air pollution – The best method to control air pollution is 1) Avoid burning of fire wood, charcoal and ‘Pollution Prevention’, also known as ‘source garbage. reduction,’ is any practice which reduces, eliminates or prevents pollution at its source.2) Use renewable energy resources. For every vehicle you must regularly 3) Strict implementation of pollution control obtain PUC (Pollution Under Control) laws. certificate which is a Certification Mark issued to certify that motor vehicles in India meet 4) Height of chimneys should be increased to emission and pollution control norms is the highest possible level to reduce pollution necessary for every vehicle. at the ground level.5) Development of green belt by tree plantation. The trees absorb polluting gases and particulate matter which settles on the leaf surface.6) Strengthen and use public transport system.16 Do’s Don’t · Walk to work or ride a bicycle. · Extensive use of private vehicles. · Try to use public transportation whenever possible. · Travel by congested road during rush hours. · Carpool – Two or four people can ride in one car. · Keeping the engine running on for more than one minute · Get a valid pollution under at traffic signals. control certificate (PUC) from authorized testing centre. · Use of clutch pedal as footrest. · Keep automobiles fuel filters clean and save the fuel. · Use of leaded petrol. · Maintain recommended tyre pressure. · Use biofuels. Do you know The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 SAFAR The Air (Prevention and Control of Govt. of India has introduced a major Pollution) Act, 1981, was established to national initiative called \”System of Air maintain the ambient air quality in the nation. Quality, Weather Forcasting and The enactment regulates the emissions from the Reserch (SAFAR) in greater metropolitan industries and factories so as to keep them cities of India to provide location specific below the harmful levels. The Air Act also has information on air quality in near real a provision under which Pollution Control time. It is installed in four cities Delhi, Boards can earmark areas wherein no polluting Pune, Ahmedabad and Mumbai. This industrial activity is allowed. system beuefits the general population by increaring awareness on climate related Violation of provisions of the Air events. Before the introduction of SAFAR (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 there was no way to know the status of air attracts criminal charges and such organisation quality. or individuals have to face criminal trials for polluting air. The Act makes it mandatory for every occupier of the premises to furnish appropriate information, whenever asked for, to the pollution control board officials.17 2.2 Climate change surface absorbs solar radiations and gets warmer, while some of the heat is radiated back Climate is the general average pattern of into atmosphere. Naturally occurring gases, weather in a place over a period of years. present in the atmosphere trap a part of this Changes in environment are either natural or outgoing heat and prevent it from escaping back man-made. Man-made changes have greater into space.This leads to warming of the earth’s and more serious impact on the climate. Human surface and a substantial rise in temperature of activities are leading to an unprecedented the troposphere. acceleration in climatic changes. It is predicted that by 2050, the world will be warmer by an This phenomenon keeps the earth average of 1.5 – 4.5°c. There are several reasons sufficiently warm; and the life on the earth for these accelerated changes. The increase in survives at this temperature. some gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels Gases like Carbon dioxide (CO2), Oxides of and deforestation are some of the reasons. As Sulpher (SOx), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), these emissions continue to rise, it is feared that Methane (CH4) etc. are called greenhouse gases they will lead to a substantial change in the (GHGs), because they act like the glass of a climate. greenhouse. Due to which the heat absorbed by the surface of the earth is retained and it can not Greenhouse effect escape into the space. This trapping of heat in In the normal course of things, the earth the troposphere is called Greenhouse effect. Sunlight Reflected energy Emitted energy Greenhouse Gases CO2 CH4 H2O N2O CFCS Absorbed energy Heat Figure 2.1 Greenhouse effect 18 Global Warming rise at the present rate; earth’s mean temperature will rise by 1.5-4.5°C by 2050. This would Global climate is dependent on the disrupt crop growth and cause loss in agricultural concentrations of greenhouse gases present in production. earth’s atmosphere. Today human activities leading to release of greenhouse gases are 2. Rise in sea level dramatically increasing. Vehicular and industrial pollution are adding gases like Carbon Over the last century, the global sea level dioxide (CO2), Sulpher dioxide (SOx), (NOx) and has risen by 10-30 cm. due to melting of glaciers. Carbon Monoxide (CO). Some new manmade If this situation continues, this would submerge gases such as CFC’s are also resposible for small islands. The republic of Maldives is an increase in temperature. The gradual increase example of a nation, which is very vulnerable to in the temperature of the earth atmosphere is sea level rise. Delta regions are also at high risk. referred to as Global Warming.3. Agricultural production Table 2.3 : Activities responsible for climate change Changes in weather pattern would have far reaching effects on agriculture. Some places Activity Greenhouse gas would get drier, some wetter, some get hotter and other cooler. This will affect the crop Industrial emissions NOx CO CO2 SOx production and yield. Vehicular emission CO CO2 SOx 4. Loss of ecosystem and biodiversity Fossil Fuel burning CO CO2 Due to large scale felling of trees and high level of dryness, large forests may catch fire. Cow dung, ruminant CH4 Indonesia and Brazil forests are the recent animals, paddy fields examples of forest fires. Large areas of forests would disappear, so animal species would be Sewage, Landfill CH4 forced to migrate. CFC’s Refrigeration, foams 5. Adverse effects on human health and aerosols Deaths due to heat waves and other extremes Fertilizers NOx of climatic conditions, water and air borne diseases like Malaria, Encephalitis and Dengue Impact of climate change etc. would be more. What will happen if the earth’s temperature 2.3 Soil pollution rises by a small amount? Is it something to worry about? Let us look at some of the Soil is like water and air, equally important impacts : for living organisms. It supports plants on which all other living organisms depend. The process 1. Temperature increase – of soil formation is so slow that the soil is considered as a non-renewable source. If input of greenhouse gases continues to Therefore, the study and control of soil pollution is important.19 Sources of soil pollution Table 2.4 : Soil fertility There are several materials, which Sr. Soil Soil Fertility Ratings adversely affect physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and thus reduce No Nutrients Low Medium High its quality. These are – Organic 1. Pesticides and insecticides that are sprayed on crops. carbon as a 2. Fertilizers and manures that are added to 1 measure of 0.75 the soil to increase the crop yield. available 3. Over irrigation. nitrogen Effects of soil pollution (%) · The productivity of soil is reduced due to Available 560 the addition of harmful substances like 2 nitrogen chemicals, pesticides and herbicides. (kg/ha) · Chemicals and pesticides affect the structure and fertility of soil by killing the Available soil microorganisms. Phosphorus · Faulty sanitation and unhygienic practices of the people add to the soil pollution.3 (P)(in 24.6 alkaline · Pathogens present in wastes and excreta contaminate the soil and vegetable crops soil) (kg/ grown in that soil causes diseases in humans and domesticated animals. ha) · Increase in the concentration of soluble Available > 280 salts is called salinization. This adversely 4 Potassium 500 ml) Exercise for · Packaging material for medicines, solid Journal Assignment waste, agriculture sector 1) Write down the journey of dry waste from · Bags/Sheets used in plant nurseries your house to the place where it goes. · Food grade virgin plastic bags over 50 2) Write down plastic recycling rules and microns e-waste recycling rules. · Milk pouches over 50 microns 3) What are the sources of noise pollution? Do you Know? Explain the ways to reduce it. (A waste management model for small towns) 4) What is global warming? What you can do to reduce it. Vengurla in Sindhurdurg district of Maharashtra, is a town which generates 5) What are the sources of air pollution in revenue from its waste. metropolitan cities in India? Explain with examples. The state government conferred Vengurla the Vasundhra Award, 2017 for 6) Explain the impacts of climate change. its green initiatives. It is a successful model for 100 per cent solid waste management 7) Explain the problems related to use of fossil fuels.8) Explain impacts of fertilizers used in agriculture. ** ** ** ** 32 3. Sustainable Development 3.1 Need for sustainable development see an increase in population followed by excessive use of natural resources. This is because of the 3.2 Sustainable Development Goals increased demands and needs of growing population. As the economic conditions of the 3.3 Challenges for sustainable development people in urban area started improving, their purchasing power increased. People started 3.4 Sustainable Agriculture purchasing electronic goods, metal and plastic articles. This led to consumerism.3.5 Role of individuals, community and government in sustainable development Advancement in technologies, globalization, rapid changes in lifestyle, access and desire to We enjoy nature! We visit forests, mountains, luxury goods and consumerism are the main rivers, oceans, wildlife for our recreation. But causes of rapid depletion of natural resources and what about our future generation? We should think deterioration of the environment. that they also should be able to enjoy the nature. \”Sustainable development is the development 3.2 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) that fulfils the needs of the present; without compromising the ability of future generations Sustainable development goals are a to meet their own needs.\” The aim of sustainable collection of seventeen global goals designed to development is to balance our economic, be a \”blue print to achieve a better and more environmental and social needs for now and future sustainable future for all.\” The SDGs set in 2015 generations. by United Nations (UN) qeneral assembly and intended to be achieved by 2030.3.1 Need for sustainable development Goal 1 Sustainability is improving quality of human End poverty in all its life; while living within the carrying capacity of forms everywhere supporting ecosystems. If natural resources on the earth are conserved, maintained and enhanced, Goal 2 the ecological processes would work smoothly. End hungers, achieve food The raw materials for the industry, food, water, security and improved fuel, fodder come from the environment. The nutrition and promote environment also absorbs the waste created by our sustainable agriculture. developmental activities. Thus it acts as a source and also a sink for us. Goal 3 Sustainable development will lead to true Ensure healthy lives economic growth. This will be reflected in equitable distribution of economic benefits; which and promote well in turn will help to bridge the gap between poor and rich people in the society. being for all, at all If we look at the scenario around us, we can ages.33 Goal 4 Goal 5 Ensure inclusive and equitable education and Achieve gender promote lifelong learning equality and empower opportunities for all. all women and girls. Goal 6 Goal 7 Ensure availability and Ensure access to sustainable affordable, reliable, management of water sustainable and modern and sanitation for all. energy for all. Goal 8 Goal 9 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable Built resilient economic growth, full and infrastructure, promote productive employment inclusive and sustainable and decent work for all. industrialization and foster innovation. Goal 10 Reduce inequality within Goal 11 and among the countries. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, Goal 12 safe, resilient and Ensure sustainable sustainable. consumption and production patterns. Goal 13 Take urgent action to Goal 14 combat climate change Conserve and sustainably and its impacts. use the oceans, seas and all marine resources for Goal 15 sustainable development. Protect, restore and 34 promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Goal 16 use of natural resources. To reduce the exploitation of these natural resources is a big challenge. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. Goal 17 3) Poverty – Strengthen the means of implementation and In underdeveloped and developing countries, revitalize the global poverty is a big challenge. Sustainable partnership for sustainable development must also look for the basic needs of development. poor and deprived people, as they also aspire for better life. Activity 1 Write at least 2 steps to achieve the goals of sustainable development from 1 to 17.3.3 Challenges for sustainable development 4) Unequal distribution of resources – 1) Population growth – Consumption of resources per capita in developed countries like U.S is about 50 times As the world populatin is growing there is a greater than the consumption per capita in peer presure on the available resources. Today developing countries.U.S.A. alone with 4% of worlds population is approximately 7.7 billion world population, consumes about 25% of the and India’s population is approximately 1.32 world’s resources. billion. The rate at which these resources are being exploited by such a large population, they Even within the country, there is disparity in would not last for longer time. the use of resources like water. When large dams are constructed, huge tracts of forests and 2) Exploitation of natural resources – agricultural lands of affected people are utilized for the dam. These local people, whose livelihood Exploitation of natural resources started to are linked to this land are displaced to some other emerge on an industrial scale in 19th century. places. Timber, coal, metals, oil, natural gas, subsoil minerals, water and many more resources are 5) Consumerism – being exploited for industrial and commercial uses. Progress and development of new In growing economy, people have more technologies and equipments changes in life styles purchasing power. This leads to more consumption led to use of various appliances at work place, of various goods for luxury. Production of a home, in industry and agriculture. This led to over variety of electronic, plastic, metal goods are a major source of attraction/desire in the market.35 To follow the path of sustainable production. Similarly non-conventional energy development, people to change their life style and sources like solar, wind energy, biogas based do with less. In practice, people are reluctant to do appliances should be subsidized. Rain water so. This is one of the big challenges to sustainable harvesting systems also should be given subsidies. development. Government should implement schemes to achieve sustainable goals.6) Education and unemployment – 3.4 Sustainable agriculture Illiteracy is a major challenge for sustainable Sustainable agriculture refers to the ability to development. Poor people can’t afford to educate produce food without causing irreversible damage their children. They are unable to get employment to ecosystem and to human health. It has as they have no quality education. This vicious biophysical, socio-economic and environmental circle continues. Population increase in the aspects. country is also one of the reasons for the unemployment. • The impact of various agricultural practices should not affect crop 7) Awareness – productivity in the long term. Common people are not at all aware about • Farmers should add the necessary inputs the fact that resources on this earth are limited and (use of bio fertilizers and bio pesticides that non-renewable resources will not even get etc.), manage the resources. generated once they are used up. This is the reason that these resources should be used judiciously. • In agricultural practices use natural People should realize what are their actual needs resources such as water and land carefully. before purchasing. • A way of moving towards that goal is to 8) Government Policy – make a gradual shift from chemical agriculture to organic farming. To achieve the goals of sustainable development, the government has to take certain Organic Farming hard decisions and implement different schemes. Organic farming is a system which avoids use It should restructure the cost of all goods, considering the environmental cost of their of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and animal feed additives etc. It uses advance knowledge along with traditional methods such as crop rotation, mixed cropping, mixed farming, green manures, bio -fertilizers and bio-pesticides. Organic farming is based on the following principles. • Nature is the best role model for farming since it uses adequate natural resources. • Soil is a living system and should not be used for dumping chemicals.36 • Organic fertilizers in the soil are significant Activity 2 contributors to its fertility and must be protected and nurtured at any costs. Conduct an interview of a farmer to collect information about mixed cropping Elements of sustainable agriculture along with the reasons. • Cropping methods 1) Mixed farming 3) Crop rotation 2) Mixed cropping Monocotyledon crops repeatedly grown in 3) Crop rotation • Biofertilizers the same place eventually depletes various • Biopesticides nutrients. Crop rotation is the practice of growing • Integrated Pest Management a series of different crops in the same space. Cropping Methods Crop rotation gives the following benefits : 1) Mixed farming • Maintains the balance of nutrients. Mixed farming is a system of farming crops, • Improve soil structure and fertility. and raising livestock, poultry fish etc. together on a farm. • Reduces requirement of other fertilizers. The advantages of mixed farming are : • Inhibits the growth of different pests. • Greater stability of yield over different • Keeps the land under continuous seasons. production. • Better use of resources. Bio-fertilizers • Better control of weeds, pest and diseases. • Suitable for small farmers. Bio-fertilizers are living organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil. It refers to 2) Mixed cropping the use of microbes instead of chemicals to enhance the nutrition of the soil. Bio-fertilizers In this method different crops are grown in does not cause pollution thus they are eco friendly. the same field. Crops are mixed in such a way that Advantages of bio-fertilizers they can benefit each other. For example, ‘Tur’ is planted in between the rows of cotton plants. • Improves soil texture and increases yield Because of such practice atmospheric nitrogen is of crops fixed in the soil by ‘Tur’ and used by both plants. • Do not allow pathogens to flourish Advantages of mixed cropping are : • Eco friendly and cost effective • Do not cause environmental pollution • Minimizing the risk of total crop failure There are various bio fertilizers like • Pest and disease control Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, • Weed control phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhiza, • Protection of soil from erosion which are available in the market. • Improves soil fertility. • Bio pesticides : Bio pesticides are derived from natural material such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals.37 In India, a range of neem products such as environmental contamination due to the extracts of neem kernel, seed and leaf are used indiscriminate use and unspecific product. Bt as bio pesticides. Some farmers are using other cotton has proved useful in countries where it pesticides made from herbs such as basil, mint, has been introduced earlier. marigold and lemongrass etc. What is Bt cotton? Bio pesticides have the following advantages – The Bt is a short form of soil bacterium • They are less toxic than the chemical ones. Bacillus thuringiensis. This bacterium synthesizes proteins called ‘endotoxins’ • They generally affect only the target pests which are highly toxic to certain insects. They and closely related organisms. While kill the insect by acting on the epithelium conventional pesticides affects organism tissues of midgut of caterpillars. When this like birds, insects and mammals. gene is introduced in the cotton plant, it starts producing this toxin and destroying the pest. • Bio pesticides are effective in very small quantities and decompose quickly. Further, This method is useful for protecting the the pollution problems are avoided. crops without pesticides. The introduction of Bt cotton has provided growers with a new Genetically modified crops (GM) tool for managing bollworms in cotton. Reduced pesticide use, improved crop Genetically modified crops are made by management effectiveness, improved yield using such technology which involves inserting a and profitability and improvement opportunity specific gene into the genome of plant species. to grow cotton in areas of severe pest This plant species is then grown by tissue culture. infestation. The new plants, having the specific gene in them, are useful as they are resistant to certain pests or Integrated Pest Management diseases. Therefore use of chemical pesticides is considerably reduced. However, there are certain Integrated pest management (IPM) is a pest disadvantages of GM crops, which should also be control strategy with following features : consideved while using them. • Focus on control and not eradication of pests. Do you know? Attempts at total eradication are costly and environmentally destructive and may Cotton is one of the major fibre crops of actually worsen the situation. It is better to global significance. In India, 162 species of decide on acceptable pest levels and take insect pests attack different stages of cotton. action when the levels are exceeded. Out of this bollworms are most damaging and loss inducing pests of cotton. The frequent • Select the best suitable varieties for local and regular crop failures in the last 15 years conditions and use natural predators and have been attributed to bollworms. Although parasites. a wide variety of pesticides are used to minimize the pest damage, there were new • Observe regularly and keep records of pest serious problems such as resistance to behaviour. pesticides, reoccurance of secondary pests, • Choose mechanical means such as hand ticking insect barriers pheromone, traps, etc.38 • Use minimum chemical insecticides as the Do you know? last option. Sikkim is 100% organic state! IPM is an environment friendly approach that significantly reduces or eliminates the use of In 2016, Sikkim becames India’s first cheminal pesticides. organic state. Today all farming in Sikkim is carried out without the use of chemical Impact of chemical pesticides on environment fertilizers and pesticides. This makes and human health. agriculture more ecofriendly with healthy grain production. • Within 5-10 years, pest can develop immunity to pesticides through natural 1,90,000 acres of cultivable land in selection and pesticides become uneffective. Sikkim is certified as organic. Thousands of composting pits are installed for making • Elimination of natural predators of pests. compost. Compulsory training on organic farming as part of capacity building is • Generally less than 2% of the insecticide introduced. Due to this production and exports applied to crops reaches the target pests. are growing. Biodiversity has flourished and The rest contaminates the air, water tourism is also growing. sources, soil and human food. Water management • The pesticide that used for the target species affects the non-target organisms In sustainable agriculture, proper water like human beings and animals. Every management is essential. Sustainable water year in the world, large number of farm management techniques includes : workers and their children are aftected due to careless handling of chemical 1. Drip irrigation pesticides. This technique delivers water directly to the • Pesticides remain in the harvest as residue plant root. It reduces the evaporation that happens and enter the food chain. Such residues with sprinkler system. In addition to this, timers persist for a long time. Most of the food can be scheduled for watering as per requirement. items that we consume have been recorded Drip irrigation can save up to 80% water as for the presence of pesticides. Animals and compared to conventional irrigation. birds are also seriously affected. Activity 3 Visit agricultural service centre nearby. Prepare a table of commonly used pesticides and fertilizers along with their impacts on humans and environment. Figure 3.1 : Drip irrigation 39 2. Farm ponds drought-resistant. Increased soil organic matter and better forage cover are also water- These are built in their own farm to harvest saving benefits of rotational grazing. rainwater for use throughout the year. Activity 5 3. Irrigation scheduling Arrange a poster competition on the theme Smart water management is careful ‘wastage and conservation of natural monitoring of the weather forecast, as well as soil resources’ in your college/school. and plant moisture and accordingly schedule irrigation, avoiding overwatering to the crops.3.5 Role of individual, community and government in sustainable development 4. Drought-tolerant crops Role of Individual Growing crops that are appropriate to the regions climate. Selecting crop species that are If we want to follow the path of sustainable native to arid regions and are naturally drought- development, we should use all kinds of resources tolerant. like food, paper, water, energy, forest, land etc. very carefully at our individual level. This can be 5. Compost and mulching achieved by following simple steps and ‘4 R’ principles – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recover Compost or decomposed organic matter used in our day-to-day life. Details of this topic are as fertilizers, has been found to improve soil discussed in Chapter 2. quality also increase its water holding capacity. Role of Community Mulching is a material spread on the top of the soil to conserve moisture. It is made from Any village or community can change the organic and inorganic materials such as straw or whole scenario of their village if they are inspired wood chips that will breakdown into compost, by a person or an incidence. Ralegan siddhi is a further increasing the soil fertility and will retain very promising example of community water. participation, leading to sustainable development and prosperity. Activity 4 Role of Government Make a visit to an orgaic farm in your area. Arrange an interview with the farmer to Government of India is giving emphasis on understand the ways and means of organic achieving the goals of sustainable development. farming. Make a report of it. For this, government has defined certain policies and programmes. Some of them are as follows. Do you know? 1) Swach Bharat Rotational grazing is a process in which Abhiyan – It was livestock are moved between fields to help launched on 2nd regrowth of pasture. Good grazing october 2014 by management increases the fields’ water Prime Minister to make India clean. It is based on absorption capacity and decreases water runoff ultimately making pastures more 40 Sustainable Development Goal number (SDG) 6. of India, in which affordable housing would be The aims of this project are to provide sanitation provided to poor people. This was launched by facilities to each and every family. It includes Prime Minister in 2015. This project targets to constructions of toilets and to form solid and build 20 million affordable houses by 2022. It has liquid waste disposal systems. Another two aims two components urban and rural. This addresses of this project are to make villages clean, safe as sustainable goal no.11. well as adequate drinking water supply by 2019.5)Sarva 2) Beti Bachao, Beti Shiksha Padhavo Yojana – This is Abhiyan – a campaign of Government This is an of India, launched on 22nd Indian Government Programme, aimed at January 2015 by Prime universalization of elementary education in time Minister based on SDG bound manner. This programme was Pioneered by goal number 4 and 5. It Primer minister to achive SDG goal 4. It aimed to aims to address the issue of declining child sex educate all children between age 6 to 14 by 2010. ratio (0-6 years). It initially focused on multisector However, the time limit has been pushed forward action in hundred districts throughout the country indefinitely. where there was low child sex ratio.6) Namami Gange 3) Ujwala Yojana – Abhiyan – This This project was Abhiyan was launched launched on 1st May by Prime Minister in 2016 by Prime June 2014 with a Minister. It is based budget out lay of Rupees 20 thousand crore to on SDG 5. In this accomplish the twin objectives of effective nearly 50 million L.P.G. connections were abatement of pollution, conservation and distributed to women of below poverty line rejuvenation of our national river, Ganga. families. A budgetary provision of Rupees 800 billion was made available for this. The purpose Do you know ? of this scheme is to provide clean fuel to women for cooking. The women will be free from health Mangroves store 50 times more carbon in hazards due to fire wood and cow-dung burning. their soils by surface area compared to tropical These houses will be smoke free which benefits all forest; and 10 times more than temperate forest. including children. That is why it is very important to conserve mangroves.4) P r a d h a n Activity 6 Mantri Awas Yojana – This Find out more information on different is an initiative Government schemes related to sustainable taken by development. Government 41 : Environment education & water security
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What is the impact of droughts and floods on water security?

Water Resources Management Today, most countries are placing unprecedented pressure on water resources. The global population is growing fast, and estimates show that with current practices, the world will face a 40% shortfall between forecast demand and available supply of water by 2030.

  1. Furthermore, chronic water scarcity, hydrological uncertainty, and extreme weather events (floods and droughts) are perceived as some of the biggest threats to global prosperity and stability.
  2. Acknowledgment of the role that water scarcity and drought are playing in aggravating fragility and conflict is increasing.

Feeding, (which consumes 70% of the resource today), and a 15% increase in water withdrawals. Besides this increasing demand, the resource is already scarce in many parts of the world. Estimates indicate that over 40% of the world population live in water scarce areas, and approximately ¼ of world’s GDP is exposed to this challenge.

  • Water security is a major – and often growing –challenge for many countries today.
  • Climate change will worsen the situation by altering hydrological cycles, making water more unpredictable and increasing the frequency and intensity of floods and droughts.
  • The roughly 1 billion people living in monsoonal basins and the 500 million people living in deltas are especially vulnerable.

Flood damages are estimated around $120 billion per year (only from property damage), and droughts pose, among others, constraints to the rural poor, highly dependent on rainfall variability for subsistence. The fragmentation of this resource also constrains water security.

  1. There are 276 transboundary basins, shared by 148 countries, which account for 60% of the global freshwater flow.
  2. Similarly, 300 aquifers systems are transboundary in nature, with 2.5 billion people worldwide are dependent on groundwater.
  3. The challenges of fragmentation are often replicated at the national scale, meaning cooperation is needed to achieve optimal water resources management and development solutions for all riparians.
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To deal with these complex and interlinked water challenges, countries will need to improve the way they manage their water resources and associated services. To strengthen water security against this backdrop of increasing demand, water scarcity, growing uncertainty, greater extremes, and fragmentation challenges, clients will need to invest in institutional strengthening, information management, and (natural and man-made) infrastructure development.

Institutional tools such as legal and regulatory frameworks, water pricing, and incentives are needed to better allocate, regulate, and conserve water resources. Information systems are needed for resource monitoring, decision making under uncertainty, systems analyses, and hydro-meteorological forecast and warning.

Investments in innovative technologies for enhancing productivity, conserving and protecting resources, recycling storm water and wastewater, and developing non-conventional water sources should be explored in addition to seeking opportunities for enhanced water storage, including aquifer recharge and recovery.

  1. Ensuring the rapid dissemination and appropriate adaptation or application of these advances will be a key to strengthening global water security.
  2. Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 The World Bank is committed to assisting countries meet their economic growth and poverty reduction targets based on the Sustainable Development Goals ().

Particularly, water resource management is tackled in SDG 6.5, but other SDGs and targets require water resource management for their achievement. Accordingly, the Bank has a major interest in helping countries achieve water security through sound and robust water resource management.

Water security is the goal of water resources management, For a rapidly growing and urbanizing global population, against a backdrop of increasing climatic and non-climatic uncertainties, it is not possible to “predict and plan” a single path to water security. To strengthen water security we need to build capacity, adaptability, and resilience for the future planning and management of water resources.

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Water Resources Management (WRM) is the process of planning, developing, and managing water resources, in terms of both water quantity and quality, across all water uses. It includes the institutions, infrastructure, incentives, and information systems that support and guide water management.

Water resources management seeks to harness the benefits of water by ensuring there is sufficient water of adequate quality for drinking water and sanitation services, food production, energy generation, inland water transport, and water-based recreational, as well as sustaining healthy water-dependent ecosystems and protecting the aesthetic and spiritual values of lakes, rivers, and estuaries.

Water resource management also entails managing water-related risks, including floods, drought, and contamination. The complexity of relationships between water and households, economies, and ecosystems, requires integrated management that accounts for the synergies and tradeoffs of water’s great number uses and values.

  1. Water security is achieved when water’s productive potential is leveraged and its destructive potential is managed,
  2. Water security differs from concepts of food security or energy security because the challenge is not only one of securing adequate resource provision – but also of mitigating the hazards that water presents where it is not well managed.

Water security reflects the actions that can or have been taken to ensure sustainable water resource use, to deliver reliable water services, and to manage and mitigate water-related risks. Water security suggests a dynamic construct that goes beyond single-issue goals such as water scarcity, pollution, or access to water and sanitation, to think more broadly about societies’ expectations, choices, and achievements with respect to water management.

  1. It is a dynamic policy goal, which changes as societies’ values and economic well-being evolve, and as exposure to and societies’ tolerance of water-related risks change.
  2. It must contend with issues of equity.
  3. The Water Security and Integrated Water Resources Management Global Solutions Group (GSG) supports the Bank’s analytical, advisory, and operational engagements to help clients achieve their goals of water security.

Achieving water security in the context of growing water scarcity, greater unpredictability, degrading water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and more frequent droughts and floods, will require a more integrated and longer-term approach to water management.

  1. Ey areas of focus will be ensuring sustainability of water resources, building climate resilience, and strengthening integrated management to achieve the Global Practice’s (GP) goals and the SDGs.
  2. The GSG will work with a multiple GPs and Cross Cutting Solutions Areas (CCSAs) directly through water resources management or multi-sectoral projects and indirectly through agriculture, energy, environment, climate, or urban projects.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 Robust water resource management solutions to complex water issues incorporate cutting-edge knowledge and innovation, which are integrated into water projects to strengthen their impact. New knowledge that draws on the World Bank Group’s global experiences, as well as partner expertise, are filling global knowledge gaps and transforming the design of water investment projects to deliver results.

Multi-year, programmatic engagements in strategic areas are designed to make dramatic economic improvements in the long term and improve the livelihoods of millions of the world’s poorest people. The is an analytical framework that can be used to examine the status and trends related to water resources, water services, and water-related risks, including climate change, transboundary waters, and virtual water trade.

The framework helps countries determine if and to what extent water-related factors impact people, the economy, and the environment, and determine if and to what extent water-related factors provide opportunities for development and well-being. The World Bank is proactively working to address new global challenges, by adapting its operations to reach those that most need it today.

  • Working across sectors is ensuring that water considerations are addressed in energy, the environment, agriculture, urban and rural development, and within new global challenges.
  • The Bank also supports transformational engagements and initiatives, which seek to optimize spatial, green, and co-benefits among water and other infrastructure sectors.

A large proportion of World Bank-funded water resources management projects include institutional and policy components. Recent initiatives include:

Through the, Brazil’s federal government sought to integrate the water sector by improving coordination among and strengthening the capacity of the sector’s key federal institutions. In an ambitious innovation, the World Bank supported the government by helping to bring together the most important federal water sector agencies while supporting ongoing water reforms and institutional strengthening.The in the Bank’s water infrastructure projects has helped place a spotlight on the world’s growing infrastructure crisis, driven by climate change and growing populations. Embedding nature-based solutions into project designs can help deliver infrastructure services with greater impact and lower cost, all the while reducing risks from disaster, boosting water security and enhancing climate resilience.The publication of a, focuses on the potential for IUWM to address the severe and interrelated water security challenges faced by Indonesian cities.The supported the Government of Tajikistan in improving water resource management at local, basin and national levels, and in increasing crop yields through improved irrigation management. Key to improved irrigation was rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage infrastructure and support to Water Users Associations, which are community-based organizations linking farmers with irrigation service provider.The in Uganda improved the integration of water resources planning, management and development, as well as access to water and sanitation services in priority urban areas. More than 1.01 million people received access to improved water sources, and 25,000 piped household water connections were rehabilitated from 2012-2018.

With 263 international rivers in the world, support for cooperative transboundary water management can make an important contribution towards improving the efficient and equitable management of water resources. The Bank supports transboundary waters through Multi-Donor Trust Funds (MDTF), knowledge pieces, and its lending portfolio:

Central Asia Water & Energy Program () is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the European Commission, the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, UK AID, and DFID. The MDTF is building energy and water security by leveraging the benefits of enhanced cooperation in Central Asia, including all five Central Asian countries plus Afghanistan.The Cooperation for International Waters in Africa is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by Denmark, European Commission, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The trust fund finances upstream work in African International Rivers, 75% of which go to four priority basins – Nile, Niger, Volta, and Zambezi. The South Asia Water Initiative is a MDTF administered by the World Bank and financed by the governments of the United Kingdom, Australia, and Norway in South Asia. The trust fund provides recipient executed grants to initiatives in the major Himalayan River systems – the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra.In the Mekong River Basin, the Bank is supporting riparian states such as, the, and in strengthening their integrated water resource management and disaster risk management capacities, cooperating closely with the basin-wide Mekong River Commission.The Bank is also investing in knowledge pieces such as ROTI ( Retooling Operations with Transboundary Impacts ) to identify tools that promote riparian country coordination aimed at mitigating transboundary harm and leveraging benefits of investments in transboundary basins.

The Bank follows an integrated flood management agenda, which includes well-functioning early warning systems, infrastructure, and institutional arrangements for coordinated action to address increased variability and changes to runoff and flooding patterns.

In addition, a new perspective, referred to as an “EPIC Response,” is offered to better manage hydro-climatic risks: This perspective looks at floods and droughts not as independent events but rather as different ends of the same hydro-climatic spectrum that are inextricably linked. The provides a comprehensive framework to help national governments lead a whole-of-society effort to manage these risks.

Water scarcity is also addressed in:

, initially focusing on the Middle East and North Africa () region, seeking to bolster the adoption of integrated approaches to managing water resources and service delivery in water scarce cities as the basis for water security and climate resilience. Small Island States, The challenges and innovations of water management in small island states can be particularly vivid. These countries warrant particular attention not only because they are often neglected, but also because they provide an opportunity to focus on intensive reuse and non-conventional water resources development, which will be increasingly important knowledge for implementation in megacities and extremely water scarce settings. A scoping study is proposed on the state-of-the-art and the Bank’s portfolio.

Sustainable groundwater management is also a priority of the World Bank, and central to water security in many countries.

Recognizing that groundwater is being depleted faster than it is replenished in many areas, the World Bank has collaborated with key global partners through years of consultations to develop a framework for groundwater governance. The represents a bold call for collectively responsible action among governments and the global community to ensure sustainable use of groundwater.

Last Updated: Oct 05, 2022 : Water Resources Management
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