Progress Of Indian Education Sector After Independence
Over the course of 7 decades after Independence, the education system of India has evolved gradually yet phenomenally. From a literacy rate of 18% in 1951, we have moved up to 73% as of 2011. Currently, the education system in India is the strongest and largest in the world hosting more than 315 million students. In the following years, the education system started getting influenced by various institutions. During the late nineteenth century, the Theosophical Society of India and Rama Krishna Mission started to merge the western ideals of education with the Indian roots to inspire the students and make them accepted universally.
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What are the major development of Indian education after independence?

75 years of independence: How India has progressed in field of education Progress Of Indian Education Sector After Independence Representational Image. ANI At the time of independence, India was lagging behind on a number of developmental indicators. The British government had not prioritised educating the general population. It was up to the leaders involved in the freedom struggle to deal with these challenges and come up with a way to make India a modern, educated and developed nation.

  • Whether it was primary education, growth of schools and universities or other educational indicators, India has progressed in leaps and bounds since it became independent in 1947.
  • The establishment of the University Grants Commission, All India Council of Technical Education, Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and more in the decades after independence has helped India become a powerhouse of learning.
  • Here is the data on how the nation has progressed in the field of education in 75 years on independence:
  • Gender parity and gross enrolment ratio:

Female education was not given much importance at the time of independence. Most people in the country were extremely reluctant to send their girls to school. However, the situation has changed. According to data by the Press Information Bureau, girls now outnumber boys in school education.

The wide gender gap in the field has been closed off for students in classes I to VIII. For primary school (class I to V) students, there are now 1.02 girls for every boy, a sharp jump from 0.41 girls in 1950-51. For upper primary (classes VI to VIII) the number is 1.01 girls per boy. Literacy rate: The literacy rate in India jumped from 18.3 percent in 1951 to 74.4 percent in 2018.

Female literacy saw the most remarkable turnaround in the period, surging from 8.9 percent to 65.8 percent in the same period. Number of schools and colleges: Every government of independent India has focused on making educational facilities more available to the general public.

  1. The number of schools has increased to over ten times from 1.4 lakh at the time of independence to 15 lakh in 2020-21.
  2. The number of colleges has also witnessed a steep rise.
  3. From 578 colleges in 1950-51, India now has 42,343 colleges.
  4. The number of universities in the same period surged from 27 to 1,043.

One significant sector that has seen a surge is medical education. The number of medical colleges has increased over 21 times in the last 70 years. From 28 medical colleges in 1951, the number has gone up to 612 colleges.

  1. Another cornerstone of India’s education sector is the National Education Policy 2020 which has been brought out by the current Union government.
  2. The policy aims to revolutionise education in India especially through regional language becoming a medium of instruction in schools.
  3. The policy will also pave the way for an increased role for foreign universities in India.
  4. The benefits of the National Education Policy 2020 will decide where the nation stands in the next few decades.

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How has the Indian education system changed over time?

Open Learning and Distance Education System In India – The government has emphasised on the importance of open and distance education as it is estimated to play a crucial role in increasing the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER). The government has set measures to improve the open and distance learning infrastructure such as blended online courses, digital repositories, funding of researches, improving student services, maintaining the standards of imparting quality education, and more such measures.
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What kind of progress India has made after independence?

The British came to rule India as the East India Company. They landed in the 16th century as businessmen. However, they keenly observed that Indians were self-obsessed with power. During those days, India was ruled by several rulers from many dynasties.

  • Besides, the weaponry of the Britishers was much more advanced than that of the Indians.
  • Due to British rule, rival factions soon joined hands many decades later to become one entity.
  • The British helped Indians understand the value of freedom, and they fought for it bravely.
  • India earned independence on August 15, 1947.

It became one of the biggest democracies in the world. After more than 74 years of gaining independence, India has walked a long way. They have built a surplus economy and defiled evil forces from within to remain a democracy. The country has also become one of the most celebrated science and technology hubs.
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What has Indian government done to improve education?

Steps taken by the Government for revamping the education system to benefit the student community The Government is committed to provide equitable access to quality education to all sections of the society and the vision of the Ministry is to realize India’s human resource potential to its fullest in the education sector with equity and inclusion.

The Ministry of Human Resource Development is implementing several schemes aimed at enhancing literacy and basic education of the youth, expanding access to all levels of education, including higher and technical education. Several initiatives are currently being undertaken in this direction, such as in elementary education, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) programme aims for improvements in school infrastructure, curricular and assessment reforms, identification of learning indicators, improved teaching and learning resulting in better learning outcomes.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), ICT in Schools, Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Teacher Education (CSSTE), Shaala Siddhi, Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan are being implemented to improve the quality of secondary education. Recently, the Department of School Education and Literacy has formulated the Samagra Shiksha- an Integral Scheme for School Education as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and it is being implemented throughout the country with effect from the year 2018-19.

  • This programme subsumes the three erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
  • It is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII and aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.

It envisages the ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to senior secondary levels. In higher education also, various schemes, namely, Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), Global Initiative for Academics Network (GIAN), Impacting Research, Innovation & Technology (IMPRINT), Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP), Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT), Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM), National Digital Library, campus connect programme, Uchhatar Avishkar Abhiyan, Unnat Bharat Abhiyan are being implemented to improve the quality of higher education.

  • A number of initiatives are also undertaken by UGC and AICTE for quality improvement in higher and technical education.
  • Further, in order to balance the curriculum for cognitive and analytical areas with curriculum in other life skills including creativity and sports, specific suggestions were invited by MHRD and NCERT from teachers, academics, students, parents and other stakeholders associated with school education with the objective to make the content more balanced in various subjects offered from class I to class XII as prescribed by NCERT/CBSE.

Currently, the Government is in the process of framing a New Education Policy (NEP) for meeting the changing dynamics of the population’s requirement with regard to quality education, innovation and research, aiming to make India a knowledge superpower by equipping its students with the necessary skills and knowledge.

Wide ranging consultations were undertaken at multiple levels of online, expert/thematic and grassroots from village to State, Zonal levels as well as at the National level. Initially, a Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy was constituted which submitted its report in May, 2016 and thereafter, the Ministry prepared ‘Some Inputs for the Draft National Education Policy, 2016′.

Both these documents are treated as inputs for policy formulation. The exercise of preparing a New Education Policy is still ongoing as a Committee for Draft National Education Policy under the Chairmanship of Dr.K. Kasturirangan has been constituted which will consider and examine all inputs and suggestions and is expected to submit its report by 31.08.2018.
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What has India done to improve education?

While recognizing the huge potential of technology for enhancing learning, as well as the need to reduce inequities in educational access for all girls and boys, the Education 4.0 India initiative utilizes digital and other technologies to address learning gaps and make education accessible to all.
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What are the educational reforms after independence?

The main features of this reform were the introduction of basic and high school, education system and the focus on skills orientation in basic and high schools. However, it had a total reversal of the 1976 proposals which is going to be talked about in this easy.
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What is the progress in literacy after independence?

Over the last 75 years, India’s education system has seen a momentous upturn, not just in terms of policy formation and implementation of various schemes, but also in terms of pedagogy, vocational training and modernization of the education sector. India’s literacy rate was abysmally low at 19.3% in 1951, but with the new policies and schemes in place, the literacy rate touched 65.4% in 2001 and 74.04% in 2011.

The enrolment ratio of children in the age group of 6-11 was 43% in 1951; however, in 2001 India saw 100% enrolment, driven mainly by the various Government schemes and campaigns. The Kothari Commission (1964-66) was the first attempt by the Central Government to create a uniform and forward-looking vision for the Indian education system.

It brought together 20 education sector experts for their suggestions on the future of the Indian education system. The National Education Policy (NEP) of 1968 was set up as per the Commission’s recommendations. The policy was an important initiative in the Indian education sector as it put forward a ‘National School System’ which encouraged access to education irrespective of students’ caste and sex.

  • It supported a common education structure (10+2+3) and encouraged teaching of regional languages in secondary schools.
  • The NEP of 1986 (updated in 1992) had a long-lasting impact on the sector as it focussed on teacher’s education, early childhood care, adult literacy and women empowerment.
  • Additionally, it focussed on the modernisation of education and introduced information technology to the education sector.

Several Government schemes, such as the Mid-Day Meal scheme, were introduced under the policy. The schemes and programmes created a quality education system, with a special focus on marginalized students. The right to quality education is one of the basic rights, as an educated demography acts as a great leveller and is the best tool for achieving economic growth that is inclusive and sustainable.

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution with an aim to provide free and compulsory education to children in the age group of 6-14 years as a Fundamental Right. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which signified the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, denoted that ‘every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.’ The New Education Policy of 2020 has brought in a range of changes in the sector.

Instead of the earlier structure of 10+2+3, the new policy has suggested the 5+3+3+4 structure. It has brought early childhood education under the scope of formal schooling and suggested that students should be taught in regional language/mother tongue till class 5.
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What steps have been taken to spread education India?

What measures have been taken by the Government to spread education and skills among boys and girls? Answer Verified Hint: We need to know about the Government’s objective which sparked the initiative to spread education among boys and girls and what steps were taken accordingly.

Improving the literacy level of the country by providing quality elementary education for children in both rural and urban areas has always been the primary objective. But access to education was limited to the economically stronger sections of the society. Increasing child labor also kept children of the economically weaker sections deprived of education.

Complete answer: Various steps were taken and schemes were adopted as a part of measures taken by the Government to spread education and skills among boys and girls. These are discussed as follows:Establishment of schools: The basic step to spreading education is the availability and easy access to schools especially in rural areas.

  1. One such step is the Navodaya Vidyalaya Scheme whose objective lies in the selection of rural children who are talented.
  2. At least 75% of the seats are reserved for children belonging to rural areas and also 1/3 of the seats are reserved for girls.
  3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA): The main objective is to spread basic quality elementary education all over the country with coordination between the central, state and local government.

It aimed to provide a school in areas where there are no schooling facilities, to promote and support the education of girls, to provide free education, free textbooks and uniforms, to fulfil the educational needs of socially excluded categories, etc.Midday Meal Scheme: The Midday Meal Scheme comes under the National Food Security Act, 2013 which is supported by Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

  1. Its aim is to provide free lunches to primary and upper primary school-going children in government-aided schools.
  2. It was established to meet the nutritional needs of growing children as proper growth is required for a child to grasp the education provided to him/her.Abolishing Child labour: Child labour has a vital role to play in eradicating elementary education among children and they also become prone to physical and mental illness.

The Child Labour Act, 1986 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14. These children engage in labour due to poverty along with a lack of educational resources. This prohibition has led children to be engaged in schools available to them by the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

  1. Hence the SSA and abolition of child labour have been complimenting each other in recent times.
  2. Note: There have been amendments and new policies have been adopted by the government in recent times to improve education by improving teaching standards as well.
  3. The above mentioned are a part of the initiative measures only.

One such amendment is to obtain a minimum qualification authorized by the Central Government to be able to teach in both government and private schools. Several programmes to bring improvement in teacher education have also been developed. : What measures have been taken by the Government to spread education and skills among boys and girls?
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What is the current situation of education system in India?

In India, where there are 500 million people, 18% of them are between the ages of 15 and 24 and are enrolled in secondary and higher education. In India, the adult literacy rate (15+ years) is 69.3%, with adult males having a literacy rate of 78.8% and adult females having a literacy rate of 59.3%.
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Is Indian education system successful?

Top Advantages of the Indian Education System Is a the right choice for your family? India ranks well regarding the best education systems in the world, with a quality index of 59.1 according to a CEOWORLD survey. Moreover, the country is considered to have the most challenging Mathematics curriculum worldwide and the toughest exam, the IIT-JEE. The advantages of studying in the

A globally recognised curriculum

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is just one of many school boards in India. However, it is often considered the best and most studied. It is known for its emphasis on holistic development and co-curricular activities. Moreover, the CBSE programme is geared toward students who wish to enter the medical and engineering fields.

Accessible and compulsory education

The Constitution states that all children aged six to fourteen have the fundamental right to education. As a result, no child gets left behind, with over 1 million schools in India providing high-quality and accessible education. Additionally, the best have quickly adapted to the “new normal.” Nowadays, schools offer both in-classroom and online classes, ensuring that each student completes their education regardless of their pace.

Affordable fee structures

Did you know that Indian schools are relatively more affordable than other institutions around the world? Schools supported by the government can provide free education in line with the Constitution. Of course, private schools will have different fee structures; however, you can ensure that the quality of education your child receives from the is a worthwhile investment.
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What changes were brought in Indian education system under the British?

Development of Modern Education –

  • The company wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in the administration of the land.
  • Also, they wanted to understand the local customs and laws well.
  • For this purpose, Warren Hastings established the Calcutta Madrassa in 1781 for the teaching of Muslim law.
  • In 1791, a Sanskrit College was started in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan for the study of Hindu philosophy and laws.
  • The missionaries supported the spread of Western education in India primarily for their proselytising activities. They established many schools with education only being a means to an end which was Christianising and ‘civilising’ the natives.
  • The Baptist missionary William Carey had come to India in 1793 and by 1800 there was a Baptist Mission in Serampore, Bengal, and also a number of primary schools there and in nearby areas.
  • The Indian reformers believed that to keep up with times, a modern educational system was needed to spread rational thinking and scientific principles.
  • The Charter Act of 1813 was the first step towards education being made an objective of the government.
  • The act sanctioned a sum of Rs.1 lakh towards the education of Indians in British ruled India. This act also gave an impetus to the missionaries who were given official permission to come to India.
  • But there was a split in the government over what kind of education was to be offered to the Indians.
  • The orientalists preferred Indians to be given traditional Indian education. Some others, however, wanted Indians to be educated in the western style of education and be taught western subjects.
  • There was also another difficulty regarding the language of instruction. Some wanted the use of Indian languages (called vernaculars) while others preferred English.
  • Due to these issues, the sum of money allotted was not given until 1823 when the General Committee of Public Instruction decided to impart oriental education.
  • In 1835, it was decided that western sciences and literature would be imparted to Indians through the medium of English by Lord William Bentinck’s government.
  • Bentinck had appointed Thomas Babington Macaulay as the Chairman of the General Committee of Public Instruction.
  • Macaulay was an ardent anglicist who had absolute contempt for Indian learning of any kind. He was supported by Reverend Alexander Duff, JR Colvin, etc.
  • On the side of the orientalists were James Prinsep, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, etc.
  • Macaulay minutes refer to his proposal of education for the Indians.
  • According to him:
    • English education should be imparted in place of traditional Indian learning because the oriental culture was ‘defective’ and ‘unholy’.
    • He believed in education a few upper and middle-class students.
    • In the course of time, education would trickle down to the masses. This was called the infiltration theory.
    • He wished to create a class of Indians who were Indian in colour and appearance but English in taste and affiliation.
  • In 1835, the Elphinstone College (Bombay) and the Calcutta Medical College were established.
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Progress Of Indian Education Sector After Independence Wood’s Despatch (1854)

  • Sir Charles Wood was the President of the Board of Control of the company in 1854 when he sent a despatch to the then Governor-General of India, Lord Dalhousie.
  • This is called the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India.’
  • Recommendations of the Wood’s Despatch:
    • Regularise education system from the primary to the university levels.
    • Indians were to be educated in English and their native language.
    • The education system was to be set up in every province.
    • Every district should have at least one government school.
    • Affiliated private schools could be granted aids.
    • Education of women should be emphasised.
    • Universities of Madras, Calcutta and Bombay were set up by 1857.
    • University of Punjab – 1882; University of Allahabad – 1887
    • This despatch asked the government to take up the responsibility of education of the people.

Assessment of the British efforts on education

  • Although there were a few Englishmen who wanted to spread education for its own sake, the government was chiefly concerned only with its own concerns.
  • There was a huge demand for clerks and other administrative roles in the company’s functioning.
  • It was cheaper to get Indians rather than Englishmen from England for these jobs. This was the prime motive.
  • No doubt it spread western education among Indians, but the rate of literacy was abysmally low during British rule.
  • The state of women education was pathetic. This was because the government did not want to displease the orthodox nature of Indians and also because women could not generally be employed as clerks.
  • In 1911, the illiteracy rate in British India was 94%. In 1921, it was 92%.
  • Scientific and technical education was ignored by the British government.

The English Education Act 1835 was a legislative Act of the Council of India, gave effect to a decision in 1835 by Lord William Bentinck, then Governor-General of the British East India Company, to reallocate funds it was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.

  1. Education System In India During British Rule (UPSC Notes):-
  2. Also Read:
  3. UPSC Related Articles

: NCERT Notes: Indian Education System During British Rule
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What progress has India made in the fifty years since its independence?

Infrastructure Development The Indian road network has become one of the largest in the world with the total road length increasing from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.70 million km as of 2015. Moreover, the total length of the country’s national highways has increased from 24,000 km (1947-69) to 1,37,625 km (2021).
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What has India achieved in 75 years of independence?

Infrastructure – The India of today is different from India at the time of freedom. In the 75 years of independence, Indian Infrastructure has improved drastically. The overall length of the Indian road network has grown from 0.399 million km in 1951 to 4.70 million km as of 2015, which makes it the third largest roadway network in the world.

  • Additionally, India’s national highway system now spans 1, 37, 625 kilometres in 2021, up from 24,000 km (1947–1969).
  • After over 70 years of independence, India has risen to become Asia’s third-largest electricity generator.
  • It increased its ability to produce energy from 1,362 MW in 1947 to 3, 95, 600 MW.

In India, the total amount of power produced increased from 301 billion units in 1992–1993 to 400990.23 MW in 2022. The Indian government has succeeded in lighting up all 18,452 villages by April 28, 2018, as opposed to just 3061 in 1950, when it comes to rural electrification.
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What steps have been taken by the government to improve education?

The government has taken many initiatives to improve the education system in India. Right to Education is the right given to all citizen under article 21A.1. The government had made education compulsory till the age of 14.2. The government took many steps like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, NPTEL videos which provide lectures from reputed faculties, Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan, etc.3.
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What is the development of education in India?

Legislative framework – Article 45, of the Constitution of India originally stated: The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

  • This article was a directive principle of state policy within India, effectively meaning that it was within a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government could not be held to court if the actual letter was not followed.
  • However, the enforcement of this directive principle became a matter of debate since this principle held obvious emotive and practical value, and was legally the only directive principle within the Indian constitution to have a time limit.

Following initiatives by the Supreme Court of India during the 1990s the 93rd amendment bill suggested three separate amendments to the Indian constitution: The constitution of India was amended to include a new article, 21A, which read: The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in a such manner as the State may, by law, determine.

  • Article 45 was proposed to be substituted by the article which read: Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years: The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of sixteen years.
  • Another article, 51A, was to additionally have the clause:,a parent or guardian provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.

The bill was passed unanimously in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian parliament, on 28 November 2001. It was later passed by the upper house—the Rajya Sabha —on 14 May 2002. After being signed by the President of India the Indian constitution was amended formally for the eighty sixth time and the bill came into effect.

  1. Since then those between the age of 6–14 have a fundamental right to education,
  2. Article 46 of the Constitution of India holds that: The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation’.

Other provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes can be found in Articles 330, 332, 335, 338–342. Both the 5th and the 6th Schedules of the Constitution also make special provisions for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
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Has education system in India improved?

The Indian education system has come a long way from the age of the gurukuls to the digitally-driven smart classes. And in the past few decades, it is striving hard to match the pace of the global village. From the Right to Education, 2009 act to the National Education Policy 2020, there is a lot that we have already achieved. Progress Of Indian Education Sector After Independence
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What are the educational development in India?

The Development of the Education System of India – The educational system in India has four levels: lower essential (age 6 to 10), upper essential (11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher optional (17 and 18). The lower elementary school is separated into five “guidelines”, upper-grade school into two, secondary school into three, and higher optional into two.

Comprehensive Education: With the presentation of late morning suppers and RTE in schools, the Government has figured out how to draw in an enormous part of understudies from the rustic area and understudies from beneath the destitution line. The Government has made essential instruction free for all kids beneath the age of 14, subsequently drawing in additional understudies. Specific Education: Aside from general instruction and essential training, the Government of India has set up a few expert establishments for the advancement of specific courses like designing, medication, and the executive’s foundations. Gender Equality in Education: The Government of India has contrived a few plans to advance schooling among ladies, an idea where India slacks. A few Government plans like Beti Bachao, and Beti Padhao has seen humongous progress as of late. Advanced education: Today, India has plenty of value colleges. The presence of public as well as confidential universities has worked on the nature of advanced education in the country. Adult Education: To empower the training of individuals in the age gathering of 15 to 35, the initial five-year plan of the Government laid out the National Board for Adult Education. Professional Training: Professional preparation has been a piece of training improvement in India right all along. The initial five-year plan and all the resulting schooling arrangements in India laid weight on the professional preparation of the young.

The Indian schooling system has developed generally from the Vedic days to the present PC age and e-learning. Notwithstanding, there is one thing that stays normal between the two situations, and that is the significance of schooling. As Indians, our folks have forever been underscoring on the significance of training.

In ancient days it is most likely the case that the city individuals were more taught than the rustic regions. A greater part of the young men went to the gathering schools. Scarcely any young ladies figured out how to peruse yet didn’t go to schools. To study, mentors were called home.Now both boys and young ladies are lawfully expected to go to class. On the off chance that they don’t, it could prompt lawful indictment of guardians.In ancient days someone who showed a sensible comprehension of the presence of God, otherworldly training, Hindu religion and Vedas, and so forth, so the general public was worked without defilement and turmoil. This brought monstrous satisfaction to the existence of mankind.In present days, someone who shows the abilities expected for science and innovation, PC information, how to contend, and so on.In ancient days somebody who displayed on a reasonable appreciation of the presence of God, supernatural preparation, Hindu religion, Vedas, etc, so the overall population was worked without contamination and disturbance. This carried massive fulfilment to the presence of humanity.In present days, somebody who shows the capacities expected for science and development, PC data, how to battle, etc.In ancient days, Education was viewed as significant, yet there wasn’t a pattern of not having book learning. However there was a requirement for perusing and composing exercises, for example, casting a ballot, this didn’t humiliate the residents or bring disgrace any time of life. At present days, Education is viewed as renowned and financially significant. Guardians from varying backgrounds believe their youngsters should go to class, and do well in school. Being poor at school work is a dangerous wellspring of social disgrace for some.

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India, being an immense country with different religions, ranks, and doctrines, isn’t difficult to execute current techniques. Schooling arrangements in India additionally experience the ill effects of execution issues. Question 1: What is the advancement of schooling in India? Answer: The educational system in India has four levels: lower essential (age 6 to 10), upper essential (11 and 12), high (13 to 15), and higher optional (17 and 18).

The lower elementary school is partitioned into five “guidelines”, upper-grade school into two, secondary school into three, and higher auxiliary into two. Question 2: Who began the school system in India? Answer: The cutting-edge educational system was brought to India, initially by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay, during the 1830s.

“Present day” subjects like science and arithmetic came first, and transcendentalism and reasoning were considered superfluous. Question 3: How might we further develop the school system in India? Answer: Ways Of further developing The Indian Education System: Ability-based Learning, Provincial Education, Impartial Education, Educator Training, Foundation, Sponsoring Professional Courses, Fundamental Computing In Rural Areas, Make Sports Compulsory.
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What was the major achievement of India since independence?

Top 10 Achievements of India after Independence – Given below are the primary achievements of India after Independence since 1947. It includes building up of a new Indian constitution, green revolution, development of science and technology, etc. Indian Constitution:

The first in the list of India achievements after Independence is when it launched its Constitution on 26th January 1951.It laid down the framework that demarcates the fundamental political code, rights, and duties of the government and the citizens.Our Constitution earned us the title of the largest secular, democratic country in the world.

Green Revolution:

The Green Revolution was introduced in the year 1967.Despite being an agricultural state, India was food-deficient and relied heavily upon imports of food grains to feed the large population.The Green Revolution made India a self-sufficient nation.Today, India is the largest producer of pulses and the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, and sugarcane globally.

Polio Eradication:

In 1994, India accounted for 60% of the world’s Polio cases.Within two decades, India got the “Polio-free certificate” from the World Health Organization in 2014.The vigilant movement to prevent Polio dramatically increased the life expectancy from 32 years (1947) to 68.89 years.

Space and Technology:

The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was founded on 15th August 1969, giving new flight to space research in India.In 1975, India launched its first space satellite, “Aryabhata”, and never looked back. Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to go to Space in 1986, and at present, the best indigenous technology-based launch vehicles have been manufactured under the Make in India programme.In 2008, India set a world record of sending 10 satellites in orbit in a single mission through PSLV-C9.We successfully launched satellites like Chandrayaan to the moon and became the first country to reach Mars in our first attempt through Mangalyaan.

Right to Education:

India has come a long way in making education a crucial part of Indian development.The Right to Education Act, 2010 affirms education as a fundamental right of every child, providing free and compulsory elementary education to all.

Powerful Defence:

After independence, India strengthened its defence so that history does not repeat itself.In 1954, India launched the Atomic Energy Program, becoming the first nation to do so.In 1974, India conducted “Smiling Buddha”, its first nuclear test, making its place on the list of five nuclear-powered nations.This is one of the biggest achievements of India since 1947.Today, India has the 2nd largest military force and largest voluntary army in the world.

Gender Justice:

India has taken progressive steps to promote gender equality.The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and Domestic Violence Act, 2005 have discouraged social evils.Many government programs like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao work on eliminating gender bias in the country.

Nuclear program:

India experimented with its first nuclear bomb in Rajasthan’s Pokhran in 1974.India became the world’s sixth nuclear power with the operation “Smiling Buddha.”AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) and DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) executed more nuclear studies called “Pokhran-II” in Rajasthan in 1998.

Operation Flood or White Revolution:

Operation Flood was the world’s most prominent dairy evolution program, established in 1970.National Dairy Development Board of India achieved milestones with the project.India evolved into a self-sufficient milk production country due to the White Revolution, among the largest rural development agendas.

Advancement in life expectancy:

One of the achievements of India is making considerable progress in enhancing the life expectancy of Indians over the years.In 1947, the average life expectancy of Indians was roughly 32 years. But in 2022, it has increased to 70 years.India has tremendously improved its people’s health results as per WHO.

ISRO formation and satellite launch:

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was created in 1969.ISRO replaced Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR).Vikram Sarabhai provided ISRO with a critical path to operate as an agent of growth.India launched its first native satellite called Aryabhatta in 1975 with the help of the USSR, which was manufactured entirely in India.

The achievements of India since 1947 are bright examples of our great potential. Be it Mangalyaan or Yoga, Olympics or Beauty Pageants, India is constantly breaking records and making history. With thriving cultures and beliefs, India moves further, united, to new heights of success.
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What was the education development in India before independence?

Universities – India established a dense educational network (very largely for males) with a Western curriculum based on instruction in English. To further advance their careers many ambitious upper-class men with money, including Gandhi, Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah went to England, especially to obtain a legal education at the Inns of Court.

By 1890 some 60,000 Indians had matriculated, chiefly in the liberal arts or law. About a third entered public administration, and another third became lawyers. The result was a very well educated professional state bureaucracy. By 1887 of 21,000 mid-level civil service appointments, 45% were held by Hindus, 7% by Muslims, 19% by Eurasians (one European parent and one Indian), and 29% by Europeans.

Of the 1000 top -level positions, almost all were held by Britons, typically with an Oxbridge degree. Today also the same old syllabus is followed in India which was introduced by the Indian National Congress. The Raj, often working with local philanthropists, opened 186 colleges and universities.

  • Starting with 600 students scattered across 4 universities and 67 colleges in 1882, the system expanded rapidly.
  • More exactly, there never was a “system” under the Raj, as each state acted independently and funded schools for Indians from mostly private sources.
  • By 1901 there were 5 universities and 145 colleges, with 18,000 students (almost all male).

The curriculum was Western. By 1922 most schools were under the control of elected provincial authorities, with little role for the national government. In 1922 there were 14 universities and 167 colleges, with 46,000 students. In 1947, 21 universities and 496 colleges were in operation.

  • Universities at first did no teaching or research; they only conducted examinations and gave out degrees.
  • The Madras Medical College opened in 1835, and admitted women so that they could treat the female population who traditionally shied away from medical treatments under qualified male professionals.

The concept of educated women among medical professionals gained popularity during the late 19th century and by 1894, the Women’s Christian Medical College, an exclusive medical school for women, was established in Ludhiana in Punjab. The British established the Government College University in Lahore, of present-day Pakistan in 1864.

  1. The institution was initially affiliated with the University of Calcutta for examination.
  2. The prestigious University of the Punjab, also in Lahore, was the fourth university established by the colonials in South Asia, in the year 1882.
  3. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, founded in 1875, was the first modern institution of higher education for Muslims in India.

By 1920 it became The Aligarh Muslim University and was the leading intellectual center of Muslim political activity. The original goals were to train Muslims for British service and prepare an elite that would attend universities in Britain. After 1920 it became a centre of political activism.

  1. Before 1939, the faculty and students supported an all-India nationalist movement.
  2. However, when the Second World War began political sentiment shifted toward demands for a Muslim separatist movement.
  3. The intellectual support it provided proved significant in the success of Jinnah and the Muslim League.

At the 21st Conference of the Indian National Congress in Benares in December 1905, Madan Mohan Malaviya publicly announced his intent to establish a university in Varanasi. On 22 November 1911, he registered the Hindu University Society to gather support and raise funds for building the university.

  • Malaviya sought and received early support from the Kashi Naresh Prabhu Narayan Singh, Thakur Jadunath Singh of Arkha and Rameshwar Singh Bahadur of Raj Darbhanga.
  • BHU Banaras Hindu University was finally established in 1916, the first university in India that was the result of a private individual’s efforts.

Amongst the Universities founded in the period are the: University of Bombay 1857, University of Calcutta 1857, University of Madras 1857, University of the Punjab 1882, Allahabad University 1887, University of Mysore 1916, Patna University 1917, Osmania University 1918, Rangoon University 1920, University of Lucknow 1921, University of Dhaka 1921, University of Delhi 1922, Nagpur University 1923, Andhra University 1926, Agra University 1927, Annamalai University 1929, University of Kerala 1937, Utkal University 1943, Panjab University 1947, University of Rajputana 1947
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What are the educational reforms after independence?

The main features of this reform were the introduction of basic and high school, education system and the focus on skills orientation in basic and high schools. However, it had a total reversal of the 1976 proposals which is going to be talked about in this easy.
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