What Are The Objectives Of Secondary Education
Objectives of Secondary Education Objectives Secondary education should provide the learner with opportunities to :

acquire necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for the development of the self and the nation promote love for and loyalty to the nation promoter harmonious co-existence among the peoples of Kenya develop mentally, socially, morally, physically and spiritually enhance understanding and respect for own and other people’s cultures and their place in contemporary society enhance understanding and appreciation of interrelationships among nations promote positive environmental and health practices build a firm foundation for further education and training develop ability for enquiry, critical thinking and rational judgment develop into a responsible and socially well adjusted person promote acceptance and respect for all persons enhance enjoyment in learning identify individual talents and develop them build a foundation for technological and industrial development develop into a self-disciplined individual who appreciates work and manages time properly

Licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License JCA Presentation: Using GeoGebra in Secondary School Mathematics teaching
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What are the 5 objectives of secondary education in Kenya?

Kenya – Secondary Education Secondary school education usually starts at 14 years of age and runs for four years. Upon completion of secondary school, students can choose to go to college or pursue other vocational fields. Students who do well in secondary school are admitted to college, and others join teacher training institutions, technical training schools, or the job market.

The competition for admission to college and the training institutes is very high. The secondary education program is geared towards meeting the needs of both the students who terminate their education after secondary school and those who proceed to higher education. In this context, the secondary school curriculum emphasizes job-oriented courses, such as business and technical education.

The objectives of the secondary school education are to prepare students to make a positive contribution to the development of society, and to acquire attitudes of national patriotism, self-respect, self-reliance, cooperation, adaptability, and a sense of purpose and self-discipline (Sifuna 1990).

The curriculum covers six major areas: communication (English, Kiswahili and foreign languages), mathematics, science (physical and biological), humanities (geography, history, government, religious education, social education, and ethics), applied education (agriculture, industrial education, wood technology, metal technology, power mechanics, electrical technology, business education, accounts, commerce, typing and office practice, home science, clothing and textiles, food and nutrition, arts, and music), and physical education.

There are two categories of secondary schools in Kenya, public and private. The public secondary schools are funded by the government or communities and are managed through a board of governors and parent-teacher associations. The private schools, on the other hand, are established and managed by private individuals or organizations, including missionaries.

  • There has been a tremendous increase in both the number of secondary schools and in student enrollment in response to the rapidly increasing number of primary school graduates seeking entry to the secondary level.
  • In 1963 there were only 151 secondary schools with a total enrollment of 30,120 students.

In the year 2000, the number of secondary schools had risen to nearly 3,000 with a total enrollment of 620,000 students. Of this total, slightly over 40 percent are female. The rapid expansion at the secondary level has been the result of the vigorous harambee schools movement that has led to the establishment of numerous community secondary schools.

Only about 50 percent of pupils that sit for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) get places in secondary school. These are categorized into four areas—national, provincial, district, and harambee. Students sit for a minimum of eight subjects at the end of Form Four for the award of KCSE.

Compulsory subjects are English, Kiswahili, and mathematics. The secondary school curriculum was developed with the 8-4-4 system’s goals of addressing the following needs: to make a more relevant curriculum that would offer practical skills applicable to a wide range of job opportunities; and to provide equitable distribution of education resources that assured opportunities for all students regardless of their origin, creed, race, or region.

Though the curriculum is designed with the above goals, the postgraduation unemployment problem has not been solved. Unemployment has continued to increase and the number of educated and disillusioned workers has grown in great numbers, especially in the major cities. This is often due to the fact that schools produce graduates who have the hope that education equals access to jobs, but there are no jobs due to lack of infrastructure development.

In other words, Kenya faces a problem of too many educated people without the opportunities for them to apply the skills that they acquired. There has been very little emphasis on agriculture and rural development, and many rural residents are moving to the cities.

  • Thus, the crisis Kenya faces in the twenty-first century is finding jobs for an educated people who are poor and disillusioned.
  • Movement from rural to urban areas has led to overcrowded cities, higher crime rates, and lower educational expectations.
  • A study conducted by Claudia Buchmann titled “Family Structure, Parental Perceptions, and Child Labor in Kenya: What Factors Determine Who is Enrolled in School” (2000) points out that there has been very little empirical research on the effectiveness of educational initiatives that have been implemented in Kenya.

Court and Ghai (1974) also note that there has been a serious failure of communication between the educational planners and the educators. The educational planners are influenced by political pressure and as a result have rushed their decisions and placed an emphasis on the development of buildings instead of education.

Court and Ghai (1974) also assert that the Kenyan educational system was not developed with “designed and tested objectives in mind but just grew.” Buchmann (2000), comparing African educational systems in general with other developing countries—such as those in East and Southeast Asia—found distinctive differences in the way families make decisions on schooling for children.

In most African countries, and specifically in Kenya, low levels of economic development create an environment where the educational system is very competitive and where high educational achievement does not guarantee occupational mobility. This study also reveals that the theories applied in developing educational policies, if any, were not consistent with Africa-Kenyan values and were misguided.

  1. Enya developed a highly expanded educational system that rivals those in the most industrialized countries in terms of its complexity and competitiveness.
  2. Yet, the strength of the extended kinship networks, polygyny, and the dominance of subsistence agriculture show that there has been very little change in Kenyans’ lives (Buchmann 2000).

Also, while there has been a great increase in formal education, only 14 percent of the population was employed in the formal sector and 3.5 percent in the informal sector by 1990, nearly three decades after Kenya’s independence. More than 80 percent of the total labor force remains in agriculture and pastoralism, with a labor force growth rate of 3.6 percent annually.

The country is thus faced with intense competition for wage employment and growing pressure on developed arable land. In other words, a child’s ability to find gainful employment in the future has more consequence for the entire family and not just for the individual child. For this reason school means a hope of increasing job prospects.

Social security for the aging population is usually based on the future earning of the children. Kenya had implemented a social security retirement system similar to that of the Western countries but abolished it in early the 1980s when it was declared dysfunctional.
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What are the objectives and challenges of secondary education in India?

Lack of supervision and control by teachers Secondary Education must play an important role in building the future of students which mainly depends on teachers. The education system should enhance the quality of education and support the teachers in their efforts to deliver knowledge.
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What are the aims and objectives of curriculum development at secondary level?

UNIT-4 Curriculum development at Secondary Level in Pakistan (0827)

  • UNIT 4
  • Curriculum development at Secondary Level in Pakistan
  • What is curriculum?

Curriculum refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes. Curriculum is not a course, is not a syllabus. Its the subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college.

  1. Definitions
  2. All the learning activities which are planned and guided by the school,whether they are carried out in groups or individually,inside and outside the school- kerr (1968).
  3. Curriculum is tool in the hand of the artist (teacher) to mould his material in accordance with his ideals in the school – Cunningham,
  4. “A course especially the course of study in a university”. Dictionary
  5. “All the experience of pupil which has undertaken in the guidance of the school”. Bland’s Encyclopedia
  6. Curriculum theory
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Theory is a description of those structures that generate observable phenomena. George Beauchamp has asserted that all theories are derived from three broad categories of knowledge: the humanities; the natural sciences; and the social sciences. These divisions of knowledge are well established as the basic realms of knowledge.

  • Curriculum Development
  • It is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community.
  • Aims and Objectives of Curriculum Development
  • · Continue to promote the objective of elementary education.
  • · Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavor.
  • · to prepare students’ for tertiary schooling.
  • · Promotion of identity.
  • · Promotion of national identity.
  • · Cultural, moral and spiritual identity.
  • · Leadership skills.
  • · Promotion of research and respond to change the society.
  • Curriculum development approaches
  • Subject centered approach
  • Emphasis to complete subject matter,Number of lectures / number of topics / number of hours are assigned
  • Learner centered approach

Emphasis on fulfilling the needs of learner. Students will be active and responsible participants in their own learning. Strengthens student motivation, promotes peer communication, builds student ‐ teacher relationships and promotes active learning.

  1. Be learner oriented
  2. Student decides on
  3. · Learning objectives
  4. · Course contents
  5. · Methods to be used to achieve objectives
  6. · Learning resources
  7. · Sequence and pace of learning.
  8. · Time of Assessment
  9. Problem solving approach
  10. Emphasis on ability of learner to solve a given problem,Involves subject as well as learner centered approach
  11. Humanistic Approach

Rooted in the progressive philosophy and child-centered movement. Considers the formal or planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum.Considers the whole child and believes that in curriculum the total development of the individual is the prime consideration. The LEARNER is at the CENTER of the curriculum.

  • Evaluation of the Curriculum
  • Curriculum has to be evaluated only at the end, but during the process it also be carried on. This evaluation is of two types:
  • Formative:

This evaluation is carried on during the process of the curriculum function. This evaluation is most important. This will help us in correcting the deviations from the expected outcome and is a continuous process. Summative: This is evaluation done at the end of a planned activity. This concerns itself with the product of teaching-learning process.

  1. Determination of Curriculum
  2. We take certain factors into consideration that have a bearing upon the curriculum:
  3. Curriculum Development: The FIRE Paradigm.The parameters of curriculum development are fully revealed in the FIRE paradigm as the letters stand for
  4. · formulation,
  5. · implementations,
  6. · research and
  7. · evaluation

FIRE is a word with many dynamic connotations. They are to provide light, to warm, to cook and to ignite, but you may readily add others. Before 18th Amendment Before ‘The Eighteenth Constitutional Amendment Act 2010’ (GOP, 2010). The ‘Federal Supervision of Curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976’ empowered Federal Ministry of Education to supervise the educational matters present on the concurrent list.

  • National Bureau of Curriculum and textbooks, working under the Federal MOE, was a nominated ‘competent authority for performing the following functions from primary to higher secondary level: Develop curricula, scheme of studies, and manuscripts of textbooks, Approve Textbooks’ manuscripts,
  • Modify/improve/ correct the curriculum and the textbooks or reference materials.
  • Curriculum Bodies at-Primary and Secondary Levels
  • IN PUNJAB : PUNJAB CURRICULUM and TEXTBOOK BORAD [formerly PUNJAB CURRICULUM AUTHORTY (PCA), Punjab Textbook Board) is responsible to develop curriculum for Punjab Province.
  • IN SINDH BUREAU OF CURRICULUM AND EXTENSION WING (BCEW) is responsible for develop curriculum for Sindh Province
  • IN KPK: DIRECTORATE OF CURRICULUM AND TEACHER EDUCATION(CTE) is responsible for develop curriculum for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.
  • IN BALOCHISTAN: No Curriculum body its in process
  • IN ICT, FATA, FANA and AJK: CURRICULUM WING is responsible for the develop curriculum for these Areas.
  • Development Process
  • · Situational Analysis
  • o (Need Analysis/ availability of resources)
  • · Development of Standards (Top down approach)
  • · Development of Benchmarks.
  • · Selection of themes (Scheme of studies)
  • · Development of Student learning Outcomes
  • · Recommendations/suggestions for resources
  • · Teaching strategies
  • · Assessment
  • Principles of curriculum construction

New trends in Curriculum Development Digital Diversity Present age is an age of ICT technology has touched to all the wakes of human life. To survive in the concern field, it is necessary for everyone to have a knowledge and skill of technology. Education makes man enable to contribute, it strengthens the capabilities.

  1. International Understanding
  2. Globalization has made converted the world in to global village. We should consider world as a one family and for this international understanding must be inculcate through curriculum
  3. E-Learning

E-learning is sometimes known as online learning or electronic learning. It is the acquirement of information that takes place through electronic technologies and media. It refers to a course, program or diploma that is delivered online. Massive Open Online Courses Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free online courses that offer to enroll anyone.
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What are secondary objectives examples?

Examples of secondary objective A secondary objective is to establish a baseline cost for interventions aimed at reducing the level of hearing impairment. A secondary objective was to undertake a preliminary examination of the factors that were perceived to influence the use of the technologies.
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What are primary objectives and secondary objectives?

Key Takeaways –

Every investor has an objective, a specific goal behind investing.Safety, growth, and income are the primary objectives of an investor.Liquidity and Tax Savings are the secondary objectives of an investor.An investor must understand their goal before making an investment decision.Factors affecting investments include your goals, age, lifestyle, risk appetite, and returns expected.

Your hard-earned money should not be sitting idle. Instead, what if you used your money to make more money? Yes, that is what an investment is! More specifically, investment is when you purchase financial products or any other valuable item to gain favourable returns from the purchase.
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What is the concept of secondary education?

Read a brief summary of this topic – secondary education, the second stage traditionally found in formal education, beginning about age 11 to 13 and ending usually at age 15 to 18. The dichotomy between elementary education and secondary education has gradually become less marked, not only in curricula but also in organization. What Are The Objectives Of Secondary Education More From Britannica education: Secondary education Because of their wide influence throughout the world, it is appropriate to sketch briefly the educational patterns of a few major European nations and the United States.
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What are the objectives of secondary education after independence?

Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education : –

Various committees have given their valuable suggestions regarding the aim and objectives of secondary education after independence. They are as follows: Aims of secondary education according to secondary education commission (1952-53):

1. To bring all round development among the learner.2. To train the young mass of the country to be good citizens who will be competent to play their part effectively in the social and economic development of the country.3. To promote social virtues, intellectual development and practical skills of students.4.

To Train character of students to enable them to participate creatively as citizens in the emerging social order.5. To improve practical and vocational efficiency of the students.6. To develop a scientific attitude of mind to think objectively.7. To inculcate the qualities necessary for living harmoniously and efficiently with one’s fellowmen.8.

To develop artistic and cultural interests which are essential for self-expression and development of all round personality of pupils. Objectives of secondary education according to Indian Education Commission (1964-66): 1. The main objective is “national reconstruction by raising the standard of living of our people.” 2.

The education is to meet the needs of a modernizing democratic and socialistic society.3. It would promote productivity.4. It would strengthen social and national integration.5. It would consolidate democracy to adopt as a way of life.6. It would accelerate the pace of modernization.7. It would enable students to participate in productive work in school, home, workshop, form and factory etc.8.

It would develop social, moral and spiritual values among the students. As per the recommendations of Indian Education commission, education was reconstructed for the economic and cultural development of the country. Importance was given on qualitative development of secondary education by relating education with the real life situations of the students.

  1. The NPE, 1986 and the Revised NPE, 1992 have discussed about the aims and objectives of education in general out of which some are relevant to secondary education.
  2. They are as follows: 1.
  3. Secondary education is meant essentially for all round development, material and spiritual.2.
  4. It develops manpower for different levels of the economy, ultimately promoting self-reliance.3.

It develops a sense of good citizenship among the learners.4. It would inculcate democratic values, rights and duties in a democratic set up among the students.5. It would strengthen the “whole world as one family” view and motivates, the younger generations for international co-operation and peaceful co-existence.6.

  1. It should provide equality of educational opportunity for all not only in access, but also in the conditions for success.7.
  2. It would inculcate in children scientific temper and independence of mind.8.
  3. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) would be laid down and steps need by taken for fostering among students an understanding of a diverse cultural and social systems of the people.9.
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It enables to develop physical health through physical education among the students. Besides these, the secondary education should be based on a national curricular frame work which contains a common core along with other components that are flexible.
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What is the objective of secondary education in UK?

  • Secondary education in England is one of the main pillars of the British economy: a strong school system prepares millions of teenagers for university education every year.
  • Residents of any country can send their child to an English school as early as the elementary school stage (from 4 years old).
  • Foreigners can only study in private schools.
  • The main accommodation options are in a boarding school or with a guardian.
  • Until the child turns 12, a parent can stay in the country on a special Parent of a Child Student accompanying visa.
  • A key requirement for applicants is proficiency in academic English. Schools conduct additional entrance tests in basic subjects in English.
  • Foreign students enter secondary school from 11-13 years old. The last two years of studies are devoted to the standard school program — GCSE.
  • For further admission to a British university, you must complete the British A-Level high school program or the International Baccalaureate program.
  • The school itself decides which year of study in Britain corresponds to the level of knowledge of the foreign student. Transferring immediately to the second year of GCSE or A-Level programs is highly discouraged.
  • In British educational institutions, there are also special Foundation preparatory programs, whose students receive conditional admission to partner universities in the UK,

Advantages of secondary education in the UK

  • Full board. Most international schools in England offer not only quality education and a friendly atmosphere, but also comfortable living conditions under the roof of the school itself — such educational institutions are called boarding schools, They provide everything for comfortable living and studying: from a separate room and three meals a day to reading clubs and a personal mentor. A similar practice has existed since the 18th century: at that time wealthy citizens would send their sons to boarding schools in order not only to educate but also to make them into real gentlemen. In this context, “sending a child to school” means the beginning of an important stage in their life, which will save parents from routine household worries and give the child the first experience of independent life, albeit under constant supervision from the school staff.
  • Image, British pragmatism strives for economical and social effectiveness while retaining the ancient traditions. School curricula combine classics and innovations: students simultaneously learn Latin and programming languages, read Shakespeare and Foucault, study colonial history and analyze modern international relations. Graduates of English schools are brilliantly literate and business savvy, which provides them with excellent prospects for many years to come.
  • Discipline, English schools, especially boarding schools, take discipline very seriously. The student’s day is scheduled almost by minutes — from the exact time of breakfast to the schedule of evening activities. To some, this method may seem too strict, but it allows to give as much knowledge as possible to the child while ensuring the greatest possible safety.
  • Funding, It is very important for the UK government to maintain an excellent image of the educational system, so the schools are constantly being modernized. The government spends more than 78 billion GBP/year on the development of primary and secondary education, and private sector investments amount to about 11 billion GBP/year. Together they provide significant resources to guarantee that English education maintains the highest technical and quality levels.
  • Multinationals, England, especially London, has a rather open cultural policy and accepts many talented foreigners. In British society, one rarely encounters discrimination or arrogance towards people from abroad, since the main criterion here is personal success. Therefore, a foreigner who gets into an English school will find a comfortable atmosphere of diversity.
  • Discounts and scholarships. Despite the huge prices, many British schools offer students, including foreigners, special conditions. For example, 10-15% discounts for the second child. There are also grants for talented students. They can be obtained both on the basis of academic success and for special achievements in the fields of music, sports, and theatrics. However, this is quite difficult — in addition to the portfolio, candidates need to pass additional exams or creative tests.
  • International ranking. The positive image of English schools is confirmed, among other things, by the actual academic success of students. According to the international assessment program PISA, in Reading, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences, English schoolchildren are ranked 17th, 14th, and 14th, respectively,

Disadvantages of secondary education in the UK

  • Conservatism, The image of a rational and traditional Englishman is not a tourist myth: England is a rather conservative country where pragmatism and order in everything are appreciated. To this day, in many English schools, boys study separately from girls, and each day of the students is strictly scheduled from early morning until evening. They also wear a special uniform with the coat of arms of the institution.
  • Elitism, Private schools in England are often the subject of criticism: a significant portion of English families cannot afford to send their children to a private school, which makes the division into rich and poor more and more obvious. The former are almost always guaranteed a good future, and the opportunities for the latter are noticeably reduced. For example, in 2006, more than half of freshmen at Oxford University graduated from private English schools, while graduates from public institutions, which are the majority in the country, made up less than 30% of the university students.
  • Selectivity. The special prestige of secondary education makes most schools selective. This means that even if parents have a sufficient amount of money, top-ranking schools take only students with excellent academic performance and, preferably, an assortment of other talents. Learning in such an impeccable environment imposes a huge responsibility on the child and can cause much stress.
  • Nuances of admission. The procedure for admission to British educational institutions is rather chaotic. Each school itself determines the criteria and timing of selection: top schools accept applications 2-4 years before the start of the classes. In addition, foreign students are not always enrolled in the year appropriate for their age. The school may deem the child’s knowledge insufficient and assign them to a younger group. The two-year GCSE and A-Levels programs are, in principle, considered indivisible, so it is impossible to transfer immediately to the second year.

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What are major problems of secondary education?

Lack of infrastructure and faculty : Children have limited or no access to basic learning tools such as well-equipped classrooms, computers, labs, playgrounds, among other things. Often, the teachers are often not qualified or do not turn up, leading to a poor quality of education.
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What is the difference between aims and objectives in secondary education?

Goals – Educational aims consist of long-term goals which may affect the learners even after completing the course whereas educational objectives focus on short-term goals that take place during the course.
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What are the objectives of teacher education at the secondary level?

Goals & Objectives : GAURAV COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 1. Imparting an adequate knowledge of the subject- matter: The objective of teacher education is to develop a good command of the subject matter of the assignment given to him in the colleges.2. Equipping the prospective teachers with necessary pedagogic skills: The main objective of teacher education is to develop a skill to stimulate experience in the taught, under an artificially created environment, less with material resources and more by the creation of an emotional atmosphere.

  • 3. Enabling the teacher to acquire understanding of child psychology:
  • The objective is to understand the child psychology so that the teacher is able to appreciate the difficulties experienced by children so as to bring about new modes and methods of achieving the goals in consonance with the reactions of the children.
  • 4. Developing proper attitudes towards teaching:

One of the major objectives of teacher education is to develop proper altitudes towards teaching as a result of which he will be able to maximize the achievements from both the material and human resources. T here is also development of a proper perception of the problems of universal enrolment, regular attendance, year-to-year promotion.

  1. 5. Developing self-confidence in the teachers :
  2. The objectives of teacher education are development of the ability to take care of himself in terms of:
  3. (a) Adjustment with the physical conditions,
  4. (b) Healthy adjustment with the social environment
  5. (c) Adjustment with himself to derive emotional satisfaction with his life.
  6. 6. Enabling teachers to make proper use of instructional facilities:
  7. The objective of teacher education is to develop the capacity to extend the resources of the school by means of improvisation of instructional facilities.
  8. 7. Enabling teachers to understand the significance of individual differences of child and to take appropriate steps for their optimum development:
  9. The objective of teacher education is to know the causes of individual differences as a result of which he will be able to develop the ability to be a child with children, an adult with the adults, a responsible citizen among the community.
  10. 8. Development of the ability to give direct satisfaction of parents from the achievement of children in terms of:
  11. (a) Proper habits of taking care of the body,
  12. (b) Proper attitudes reflected in the behaviour of the children at home, in the school, in the streets, at the farms and fields etc.
  13. (c) Progress in the class.
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The duties of the teacher is very much relevant in nursery, primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary schools. Hence the scope of teacher education is very vast. The duties of the teacher in different stages of education depend on the foundational general education of the teacher. Emphasis is to be on the practical aspects rather than theory.

  • Goals :-
  • Intellectual:- To equip the student teachers in bringing desired social changes and to develop skills to work in future for the welfare of the society and social cohesion by achieving intellectual stability and creating new arena of knowledge.
  • Academic: – The student teachers are expected to understand the importance of objective based instructions and to develop skill in teaching practices by assimilating the purpose of analyzing the subject to be taught.
  • Training:- The broad objective of training is to empower and embolden the prospective teachers for effective teaching, research, extension and consultancy.
  • Access to the Disadvantaged:- The institution aims at the general uplift of the disadvantaged groups such as, students from weaker section of society, students from SC/ST/OBC communities and physically handicapped.
  • Equity:- Providing equal opportunities to all students without any discrimination such as caste, religion, economic condition etc.
  • Self Development:- The student teachers are expected to become acquainted with different methods of teaching, different techniques for assessment and to acquire skills in teaching.
  • Community and National Development:- To equip the student teachers by developing various practical skills that help them to perform the social responsibilities entrusted on them, leading to Community and National Development.
  • Issue of Ecology and Environment:- To develop the understanding, importance of environmental education, develop a sense of responsibility towards conservation of environment, bio-diversity and sustainable development.
  • Value Orientation:- The student teachers are expected to review the modern system of education in the context of education in ancient period and appreciate universal values as well as national values and absorb them in their lives to instill them in the next generation.
  • Employment:- The prime aim of the institution is to develop the student teachers to become effective teachers who can face the challenges of the future society.
  • Global trends and Demands:- The Pupil teachers are expected to become capable of applying modern techniques and practices in teaching by obtaining a total perspective of the role of technologies in modern educational practice.

Values The values prevalent in our working environment are expressed by:

  • Innovation
  • Commitment
  • Work Culture
  • Completely Professional Attitude
  • Democratic Ideals
  • Co-operation

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What are smart objectives in education?

There are many ways in which in-class instructional time can seem overwhelming, especially to first time teachers. During my first TA experience I remember opening up a word document with the intention of writing up an agenda for the first week’s discussion.

I kept staring at the document like it was a vast open prairie, or an empty stage in a sold-out theatre. The time and space I had seemed expansive, full of possibilities and opportunities, but also shapeless and unstructured. In that moment, I found myself wondering: how am I supposed to fill every moment of face-to-face instructional time with meaningful, interesting, and valuable content, and how am I supposed to know after the fact if I’ve succeeded in this goal? In this post, I’ll argue that you can go a long way towards answering these questions for yourself by carefully crafting S.M.A.R.T.

learning objectives, and by using these objectives to design and implement daily assessments. First off, a learning objective is a brief, descriptive statement of one thing that a student will take away from a day’s lesson. They are typically determined by (and fit into) the broader “learning goals” that you set in your syllabus at the beginning of the semester, but are more specific, concrete, and active.

Examples include: “By the end of class, each student will be able to distinguish between examples of substances and accidents, and to give an intuitive definition of each.” You might have just one learning objective for a class period, or, if you have more time or if the objectives are less ambitious, you may break it down into two, three, or even more.

(For more helpful information on learning objectives, and the difference between a learning objective and a course goal, see this helpful handout, For a taxonomy of different kinds of learning objectives, and how to incorporate these into your course prep see this handout on class prep from the Kaneb Center,) S.M.A.R.T.

  1. Is an acronym often associated with productive goal-setting in general, and I forget where I even first came across it (see here, here, and here ).
  2. The acronym stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Results-focused, and Time-bound, and I find these criteria immensely helpful in crafting good learning objectives.

I won’t go through detailed descriptions for each criteria (for such descriptions see the links above), but to get an intuitive sense, consider the following two objectives:

By the end of class students will be able to analyze philosophical texts well.By the end of class, students will be able to isolate Singer’s “Obligatory Giving” argument and distinguish its major premises, and give one reason why they agree or disagree with each premise.

Objective 2 is clearly better along each of our five dimensions.S.M.A.R.T. objectives can help structure in-class time in at least two ways. First, they can help you determine what information you need to present and what sorts of activities you need to have your students engage in, and what to prioritize in the distribution of class time for any given meeting.

  1. If objective 2 was one of your objectives, for instance, you’d need to make sure to leave time for the students to read and mark-up a paragraph of text (3-5 minutes), share their thoughts with a neighbor (2-4 minutes), and collaborate on reconstructing the argument as a group (5-8 minutes).
  2. If you have three or four other objectives for that day, you might think about simplifying the task, or about giving them a little more help along the way.

The second way S.M.A.R.T. objectives can help you structure in-class time is in a more global, semester-level sense.S.M.A.R.T. objectives — if crafted well — naturally give rise to concrete assessment mechanisms (they are, after all, Measurable, Results-focused, and Time-bound).

  • To expand upon our example: you could ask your students to write down the premises and conclusion of Singer’s argument on a half-sheet of paper and turn it in.
  • If pressed for time, you could cold call on three students and ask each to offer a premise and a brief reason to agree or disagree with it.
  • If the objective and content are crucial to the course as a whole, and directly related to your overall learning goals, you might hand out a worksheet at the end of class, or have students take an online quiz to ensure that they’ve attained proficiency.

This feedback is an invaluable resource in helping you to determine where to spend valuable future class time. As college instructors, we get precious little face-to-face instructional time with our students, so it’s important that we structure the time we have effectively.S.M.A.R.T.

  1. Learning objectives can help us to do that, and in a way that isn’t overwhelming or overly time consuming.
  2. Moreover, I’ve found that pairing my objectives with daily assessment mechanisms, and even using the process of designing such mechanisms to clarify and evaluate these objectives, allows me to foster a more “communicative” classroom experience; i.e.

one in which I’m getting feedback from the students that I can use to create future objective-based learning goals that are responsive to their needs.
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How many types of educational objectives are there?

What Is Bloom’s Taxonomy? – Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives is a hierarchical ordering of skills in different domains whose primary use is to help teachers teach and students learn effectively and efficiently. The meaning of Bloom’s taxonomy can be understood by exploring its three learning domains—cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Each of these domains further consists of a hierarchy that denotes different levels of learning. The fact that each domain is hierarchical means that learners need to move through these domains one step at a time. They cannot proceed to a new level without completing the previous one. This is an important characteristic of Bloom’s taxonomy.

It fits in with Bloom’s taxonomy objectives in providing a systematic and gradual learning process.
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What are the educational objectives according to Bloom’s taxonomy?

Background Information – In 1956, Benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Familiarly known as Bloom’s Taxonomy, this framework has been applied by generations of K-12 teachers and college instructors in their teaching.

The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice.

While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.
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