What Is The Role Of Education In Human Capital Formation
The role of education in human capital formation are as follows: An educated society facilitate better development program than an illiterate one. Education improves productivity and prosperity, and also improve enriched life experience.
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What is the role of health and human capital formation?

1 INTRODUCTION – Poor countries tend to be unhealthy, and unhealthy countries tend to be poor. Across the broad swath of history, improvements in income have come hand-in-hand with improvements in health. Further, the poorest countries of the world are in the tropics, an area rife with tropical disease.

These stylized facts lead to a natural question: does disease hold back development? It seems possible that it would. Health is a kind of human capital as well as an input to producing other forms of human capital. Being unhealthly depresses the ability to work productively and/or the ability and incentives to invest in human capital.

Taken together, these mechanisms imply that worse health implies lower income. But is this enough to account for the stylized facts above? The correlation between health and development is hard to interpret simply as the causal effect of health on income.

Third factors such as bad government or geographic disadvantages might impede both productivity and disease control. Health is also a normal good: when people get richer, they invest more in their own health, and exhort their governments to spend more on public health. The correlation between health and income might be one of circular and cumulative causation: health affects income and income affects health and so on.

This review is organized around the following question: in the aggregate, how much does disease depress income and human capital? The answer to this question would help us understand the global distribution of income and also inform us about the rate of return on health policies.

  • I start with a review of micro-empirical studies, where the evidence is most compelling, but less tightly linked to the original question, and then move to macro, where the evidence is less compelling, but better linked to the original question.
  • I discuss evidence drawn both from developing countries today and from the historical experience of now-developed regions.

The micro-empirical literature that I review is somewhat disconnected from economic theory, so I also use some stylized models to sort things out. The models help determine if a given result is of ‘first order’ importance, which is to say whether health has, to a first approximation, any effect at all on income.

I limit the scope of this review in a few ways. First, this review is about income, not well-being. People like being healthy, and so better health means better well-being even if the improvement in health does not increase income at all. Second, the review is not a bibliography on this topic. Instead, I discuss and critique examples of work that I group together by mechanism and methodology.

Third, the topic of this review is economics, not biology. There are many fascinating detours into biological mechanisms that I could take, but the focus is instead on economic outcomes, viewed through the lens of economics. Fourth, this review considers the response of income to a given improvement in health, but not how to optimally design health programs.

These features hopefully make this article more complement than substitute to existing reviews in this area. Both theory and evidence suggest that we should stop thinking of health as a univariate object. Health’s impact on income likely depends on how health changes (morbidity versus mortality, for example) and when (childhood, working age, or old age).

Health is multifaceted, and must be treated as such. In Section 2, I consider effects of childhood health on adult income. Early-life health could depress human capital (broadly defined) and thereby reduce lifetime income. Even if a person is perfectly healthy as an adult, damage from childhood disease may be hard to undo.

  1. Most of a person’s human-capital and physiological development happens early in life.
  2. Childhood is thus a key period for human-capital building, and the burden of disease in childhood could have effects that persist throughout the life course.
  3. There may also be shorter ‘critical periods’ during childhood, by virtue of which some aspect of human development is hampered if it does not take place at a particular, biologically determined age.

These ideas find confirmation in four strands of the literature, all of which estimate effects of some aspect of childhood health (or input thereto) on adult outcomes. One line of this literature finds a large labor-market return to adult height, which is, to some degree, a proxy of early-life health.

  1. A second line looks at large shocks, such as famines and epidemics and shows that time in the womb is a critical period of sorts.
  2. A third set of studies shows that nutritional deprivation early in life can have long-term consequences.
  3. Finally, a group of papers examines the effect of early-life exposure to tropical diseases.

But caution is indicated if applying many of these results to the question at hand, in that various studies examine a rapid shock interacted with a narrow age window, which would have different consequences than a persistent change in health. Taking a step back, I discuss the economics of how childhood health should affect adult income.

I use a simple model of human capital to integrate the variety of outcome variables used in this literature. A useful point of departure is the optimal choice of years of schooling in the standard model: a child should attend school until the marginal benefit equals the marginal cost. Childhood health plausibly affects both benefits and costs of schooling, so the model implies that the impact of childhood health on education is actually ambiguous.

It is therefore difficult to interpret studies that use time in school as the only outcome. Thinking about health and human capital in these terms leads us to the ‘Envelope Theorem’. This theorem implies that improvements in health affect income by making human capital more productive, but not via more investment.

This means that lifetime income would rise because childhood health allows you learn faster and grow up stronger. Health might also increase investments such as staying in school longer, but the discounted change in lifetime income from such investment is close zero if the marginal benefits and costs of schooling were already being equated.

This analysis also affects how we evaluate evidence of complementarity across inputs to human capital, such as if early-life interventions spur later investments. The Envelope Theorem suggests that we should measure the direct effect of the intervention; whether the other inputs are substitutes or complements is of second-order importance.

(This argument should be familiar to macroeconomists; it is analogous to the idea that gains in income per capita come from total-factor productivity, not from marginal changes in factors of production.) In Section 3, I discuss the effect of adult health on adult productivity, via two distinct channels.

The first channel is the direct one: being sick today reduces your ability to work today. One approach is to measure the time lost to well-defined episodes of sickness and disability. Indeed time lost to such episodes in poor countries is non-trivial, although a minor fraction of work hours.

  1. On the other hand, we know less about more subtle effects of adult sickness on income, such as reducing the quality of the labor input via diseases whose symptoms are less episodic.
  2. A second channel is more forward looking: people invest more in childhood if their human capital will not be idled by disease in adulthood.

There is considerable debate in the literature on the effect of adult life expectancy on years of education and, for example, whether this effect is much greater than zero. However, this channel is of second-order importance, by the same logic as above: changing inputs that were already optimized has no effect, to a first approximation, on income.

Next, I explore the macro implications of the estimates from the micro literature in Section 4. As a point of departure, I discuss in Section 4.1 attempts to extrapolate from micro estimate to the cross-country gaps. Calculations suggest that improving health in poor countries would raise income, but these estimates range from a few percent to tens of percent, depending on the intervention studied and whether a narrow or broad measure of health was used.

By these extrapolations, improving health would deliver large increases in income to unhealthy regions, although the gap between rich and poor countries is one or two orders of magnitude greater than the gains estimated from the microdata. Incorporating the response of population, which is affected mechanically by mortality, can alter some of these results, however.

  1. Reductions in mortality brought about the majority of the increase in population in the past two centuries ( Preston, 1980 ).
  2. Nevertheless, although lower mortality moves population onto a new growth path, where this path eventually settles depends on how fertility adjusts to the change in health.
  3. In Section 4.2, I interpret some recent studies within the quantity/quality framework, but argue that more research on fertility is needed.

Then, tying these threads together in Section 4.3, I analyze changes in human capital and population. First, I review several calibration exercises. A starting point for this exercise is to recognize that (i) mortality restrains population growth and (ii) an increase in population dilutes the per-capita supply of non-labor factors.

Several studies argue that this combination can substantially attenuate—possibly even reverse—gains in income that might otherwise come from increases in human capital. This suggests that the ‘Spectre of Malthus’ continues today. But results based on sharply diminishing returns to labor, which are in a sense calibrated from the 20th century, may be less likely in the 21st.

This is because of two large changes: urbanization and globalization, both of which make the economy less dependent on the amount of land that is locally available. I then discuss a few other issues in extrapolating from partial to general equilibrium.

In Section 5.1, I discuss evidence from cross-country comparisons in macroeconomic data. A large literature examines the relation between GDP per capita and proxies of health in a cross-section or panel of countries. The main finding is essentially the stylized fact that motivated this review in the first place.

These studies are typically well done, given the methodological constraints. But the constraints are non-trivial: it is difficult to know what to make of the causality between these two variables, and the use of a single proxy variable for health muddles the policy relevance.

Another difficulty in interpreting cross-sectional estimates is that we do not know the mechanism or timing with which improving health affects output. A smaller literature, described in Section 5.2, treats the aggregate response to large health shocks. First, I discuss within-country evidence from two studies.

Next, I turn to a recent paper by Acemoglu and Johnson (2007) who examine, in a cross-national panel, improvements in health technology in the 20th century. They find that decreases in mortality were followed by increases in population and concomitant decreases in GDP per capita.

This suggests that returns to labor diminish rapidly, although it is hard to square this result with observed shares of labor in production. I then discuss recent criticisms of this study. I also consider explanations for the different results of these three studies, but argue that more research of this sort is needed.

In Section 6, I offer conclusions from this review. Whether we think of many of the estimates below as large or small is, in some measure, a question of perspective. In my judgment, the existing micro literature does point to effects of (some types of) health on output that are modestly sized.
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What is human capital education?

ABOUT – Human capital is about the knowledge, skills and abilities essential for high performance in work and career in our knowledge- and technology-based economy. This degree program includes an online option and flexible pathways of entry and exit.

  1. It is an industry-focused program that prepares graduates for high-demand jobs.
  2. This degree offers seamless technical college transfer entry and the ability to earn a bachelor’s degree on campus or from your home community online with a one-day campus experience per semester.
  3. Students also have access to the full Clemson Experience: facilities, faculty, student support and a vast alumni network.

What careers can I pursue with this degree? Career Building: •Upskilling and reskilling. •Lifelong learning. •Management and leadership development. Workforce Development: •Nonprofit organization leader. •Learning and education leader. •Career and technology educators.
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What is the role of human capital in development?

What is Human Capital and What is the Human Capital Project? – Human capital consists of the knowledge, skills, and health that people accumulate throughout their lives, enabling them to realize their potential as productive members of society. We can end extreme poverty and create more inclusive societies by developing human capital.

This requires investing in people through nutrition, health care, quality education, jobs and skills. Why now? The cost of inaction on human capital development is going up. Without human capital, countries cannot sustain economic growth, will not have a workforce that is prepared for the more highly-skilled jobs of the future, and will not compete effectively in the global economy.

What is the World Bank’s response? The World Bank Group announced the Human Capital Project in 2017. Work is underway, with a new Human Capital Index launched in October 2018 at the Annual Meetings held in Bali Indonesia. Ministers from close to 30 pilot countries presented early ideas on how to accelerate investments, followed by a rare opportunity for their staff to work across regions and sectors in person.

The number of countries actively participating in the project has grown to over 40 as of 2019. How will the Human Capital Project have an impact? The Human Capital Project is expected to help create the political space for national leaders to prioritize transformational human capital investments. The objective is rapid progress towards a world in which all children arrive in school well-nourished and ready to learn, can expect to attain real learning in the classroom, and are able to enter the job market as healthy, skilled, and productive adults.

Where can I learn more? Learn more about human capital by reading through the stories, blogs, and frequently asked questions ( FAQ ) on our main website, Watch the recoding of the Human Capital Summit, follow updates from the 2019 World Development Report The Changing Nature of Work, and join others on Twitter and Facebook talking about why we must #InvestinPeople,
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What is the role of education in human resource development in India?

Achieve Objectives – Education helps in achieving financial objectives as well as helps in understanding the world around you better. Knowledge acts as a catalyst in human resource development in many many ways. Education helps in the economic development of the country.
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What is the importance of education and health in human development?

Importance of Health and Education In Human Development – Human development is marked by both growth of skills and knowledge, and well-being of individuals, both health and education being crucial dimensions of this. Healthy and well-educated individuals will lead to effective and efficient human resources.

  • They will be able and fit to work more and better.
  • There is a link between education and health that studies have shown.
  • It indicates that good health and nutrition are requirements for active learning.
  • Thus, the government and educational institutions are developing drives to train students about health-related education.

This includes ‘social vaccines’ which are campaigns imparting knowledge about diseases and their prevention. School Health and Nutrition (SHN) programmes across the world have been shown to promote children’s health and nutrition alongside their learning potential and future life choices.
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What is the role of health and education in human capital formation Brainly?

Expert-verified answer Human capital is created primarily through health. A healthy person can be more active than an unhealthy person and therefore contribute more to GDP. Investment in the health sector will boost the nation’s workforce’s quality, effectiveness, and productivity.
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What is the relationship between human capital and education?

Human Capital Theory – Human capital theory rests on the assumption that formal education is highly is highly instrumental and necessary to improve the productive capacity of a population. In short, human capital theorists argue that an educated population is a productive population.

  1. Human capital theory emphasizes how education increases the productivity and efficiency of workers by increasing the level of cognitive stock of economically productive human capability, which is a product of innate abilities and investment in human beings.
  2. The provision of formal education is seen as an investment in human capital, which proponents of the theory have considered as equally or even more worthwhile than that of physical capital (Woodhall, 1997).

Human Capital Theory (HCT) concludes that investment in human capital will lead to greater economic outputs however the validity of the theory is sometimes hard to prove and contradictory. In the past, economic strength was largely dependent on tangible physical assets such as land, factories and equipment.

  • Labor was a necessary component, but increases in the value of the business came from investment in capital equipment.
  • Modern economists seem to concur that education and health care are the key to improving human capital and ultimately increasing the economic outputs of the nation (Becker 1993).
  • In the new global economy, hard tangible assets may not be as important as investing in human capital.

Thomas Friedman, in his wildly successful book, The World is Flat 2007, wrote extensively about the importance of education in the new global knowledge economy. Friedman, not to be confused with the famous economist Milton Friedman, is a journalist. His popular book has exposed millions of people to human capital theory.

  1. The term itself is not introduced, but evidence as to why people and education (human capital) are vital to a nation’s economic success, is a common reoccurring theme in the book.
  2. Throughout western countries, education has recently been re-theorized under human capital theory as primarily an economic device.

Human capital theory is the most influential economic theory of western education, setting the framework of government policies since the early 1960s. It is increasingly seen as a key determinant of economic performance. A key strategy in determining economic performance has been to employ a conception of individuals as human capital and various economic metaphors such as ‘ technological change ‘, ‘ research ‘, ‘ innovation ‘, ‘ productivity ‘, ‘ education ‘, and ‘ competiveness ‘.

  1. Economic consideration per se in the past, however, has not determined education.
  2. Noted economist, Adam Smith, in the The Wealth of Nations (1976) formulated the basis of what was later to become the science of human capital.
  3. Over the next two centuries, two schools of thought were distinguished.
  4. The first school of thought distinguished between acquired capacities that were classified as capital and human beings themselves, who were not.

The second school of thought claimed that human beings themselves were capital. In modern human capital theory all human behaviour is based on the economic self-interest of individuals operating within freely competitive markets. Human capital theory stresses the significance of education and training as the key to participation in the new global economy.

In one if it’s the recent reports, the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), for example, claims that the radical changes to the public and private sectors of the economy introduced over recent years in response to globalization will be severe and disturbing to many established values and procedures.

In another report it explains internationalism in higher education as a component of globalization. The OECD believes that internationalism should be seen as an imperative in 21st Century capitalism. This form of capitalism is based on investment in financial markets rather than in manufacturing of commodities, thus requiring dependence on electronic technology.

  1. The OECD also boldly asserts that internationalism is a means to improve the quality of education.
  2. In keeping with human capital theory, it has been argued that the overall economic performance of the OECD countries is increasingly more directly based upon their knowledge stock and their learning capabilities.

Clearly, the OECD is attempting to produce a new role for education in terms of human capital subject required in globalized institutions. The success of any nation in terms of human development is largely dependent upon the physical and human capital stock.

  • Thus, recent social research focuses on the behavioral sciences of humanity in relation to economic productivity.
  • Generally, human capital represents the assets each individual develops to enhance economic productivity.
  • Further, human capital is concerned with the wholesome adoption of the policies of education and development.

In short, the human capital theorists argue that an educated population is a productive population. Human capital theory emphasizes how education increases the productivity and efficiency of workers by increasing the level of cognitive stock of economically productive human capability, which is a product of innate abilities and investment in human beings.

  1. The new generation must be given the appropriate parts of the knowledge which has already been accumulated by previous generations.
  2. The new generation should be taught how existing knowledge should be used to develop new products, to introduce new processes and production methods and social services;
  3. People must be encouraged to develop entirely new ideas, products, processes, and methods through creative approaches.

Fagerlind and Saha (1997) posit that human capital theory provides a basic justification for large public expenditure on education both in developing and developed nations. The theory is consistent with the ideologies of democracy and liberal progression found in most western societies.

  • Its appeal was based upon the presumed economic return of investment in education at both the macro and micro levels.
  • Efforts to promote investment in human capital were seen to result in rapid economic growth for society.
  • For individuals, such investment was seen to provide returns in the form of individual economic success and achievement.

Most economists agree that it is human resources of nation, not its capital nor its material resources, which ultimately determine the character and pace of its economic and social development. Human resources constitute the ultimate basis of the wealth of nations.
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Why is education the most important human capital?

Higher Education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. Higher Education therefore is expected to play an important and increasing role in the development of Human Capital of a nation.
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What is the link between education and human capital?

Education is a key element of human capital theory because it is viewed as the primary means of developing knowledge and thus is a way of quantifying the quality of labour.
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What are the main roles of human capital?

In summary, human capital plays an important role in people’s development, improving the life and income, increasing knowledge, skill, and product capacities, economic growth and reducing poverty.
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Does increased education adds to the stock of human capital?

Increased education adds to the stock of human capital, not unlike building factories adds to the stock of physical capital.
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What are the source of human capital formation?

Sources of Human Capital Formation – Education investment is recognised as one of the main sources of human capital along with other sources like health, migration, on-job training, and information. Let us decode it one by one. Quick link:
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Why education is the most important factor in human resource development?

Education is the most important factor in human resource development because an educated person can contribute more to its income as well as national income also. An educated person can earn more than an uneducated person so by are you getting more and more persons a country can develop more fastly.
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What is the role of education?

ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPMENT Today we are living in the world of knowledge economy and to thrive successfully, education is the most valuable tool. The modern era has been possible due to education and learning, and is the basis for rational and logical thinking.

It has brought in huge benefits for the people across every nook and cranny of the globe. Some of them are visible and some of them are not but overall they have contributed immensely to the development of society. For the souls taking refuge in education, the desire for growth has no boundaries. Education is not a destination, but a journey to be cherished.

It is an enriching path, not only in the lives of individuals, but is also chartering histories of nations and building strong foundations of development. Education has provided light of survival to several nations. Europe could march to development only after Renaissance.

Indians could question the evils of sati and caste system only when reformers were exposed to ideas from Western world. Even our freedom movement received impetus when we awoke to ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity from American and French Revolutions. Though we could successfully overthrow the Britishers, their education system was adopted without questioning.

Every society needs to reform the systems to meet some specific needs. Education is an overall process of not only personal growth but also an enriching growth of society and nation. It is the foundation of development of any nation. Educated youth have the ability to think beyond their stagnating lives and contribute to the development of their societies.

Education arms individuals with the knowledge of their rights and duties. It is informed citizenry which forms the base for the development of any society. If the people are educated, they can easily contribute to the national economy because they can better know the economic principles and rules. India still lives in its villages.

The seeds of education must find their way to villages. The ‘Adult Education Programme’ and ‘National Rural Education Programme’ still have a long distance to cover. By opening more primary schools in villages, we can not only curb the problem of migration by creating novel opportunities in village, but also educate farmers on knowledge of right seeds and fertilisers.

  • This may lead to better yield and could end our reliance on the import of wheat, rice and other essential commodities.
  • The quality of education needs better monitoring in both rural and urban India.
  • Awareness programmes for education must be carried out with more zeal and vigour.
  • The Central Government’s scheme ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ needs a massive boost.
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Education for all should be the primary focus. Our government expenditure on education is mere 2.8% of Gross Domestic Product, as against the generally-accepted norm of 6% or even above in the developed world. More innovative and scientific development programmes should be launched, like Skill Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion programme (SANKALP), Skill Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement (STRIVE), etc.

Along with driving self-sufficiency, education provides awareness. This awareness about the rights creates responsible citizens and responsible citizens can demand responsible and accountable governance. Education in the field of IT has opened a galaxy of opportunities in urban India with jobs in software, call centres and BPO’s ushering in a revolution of sorts.

The services sector, in this backdrop, is proving a significant contributor to the growth of economy. This knowledge hub has attracted large investments from several countries. The emphasis of government on technical education also highlights the commitment to drive excellence in areas of research and manufacturing.

Education plays a critical role in the democratic setup where an educated voter can make an informed choice. The voice of ballots gets translated into the fate of the voters through the levels of governance delivered. The policies charting the course of development of society get their nod from the representatives of people.

Roads, ports, telecom, irrigation, industries, agriculture all demand simultaneous attention for a wholesome and inclusive development. Targeted policies in all these sectors must perform in unison for a balanced development to occur. More number of higher education institutions and universities will create a breed of individuals who are capable to chart their future in a growing economy.

Education gives a level of confidence which capacitates individuals to compete globally and assert themselves. Such individuals become national asset with their contribution to the growth story of the nation. Through the entrepreneurial spirit they are able to create jobs and set up corporate empires to employ people.

This employment generation goes a long way in raising the quality of life of several families. It is, thus, a positive spread effect which becomes possible from the seeds of education. Swami Vivekananda said, “The education which does not help the common mass of people to equip themselves for the struggle of life, which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy, and the courage of a lion—is it worth its name? Real education is that which enables one to stand on ones’ legs”.

Education plays a significant role in the life of a nation and importance in a country like India cannot be underestimated. The character and quality of the people greatly depend on the education imparted to them at different levels. Rich empires may rise and fall in a stroke but those with firm rooted educational groundings have an element of sustainability.

This ensures their survival for ages. One of the most important benefits of education is that it helps to meet the objectives of life. Right education with dedication can help to accomplish the same. Getting a professional degree is the only way to excel in different business domains such as Engineering, Medicine and Accounting.

By enrolling in the course of your choice, it is not only possible to enhance the skill level but also the professional expertise. People who are educated can access a lot of opportunities. People with high intellectual wealth also enjoy good social status in society. Therefore, we can say that education is probably the most valuable aspect of life.

It brings about evolution in the way we think and conduct ourselves, which improves life and living. Education gives people the skills they need to help themselves out of poverty or, in other words, into prosperity. There is huge difference between educated and uneducated persons.

  1. An uneducated person cannot show his ideas and skills better than an educated person.
  2. A holistic development of society is only said to occur when the material wealth is complemented by cultural, social and educational achievements.
  3. These are reflected in art, architecture, music, writings and the heritage of that society.

All great civilisations of the world, which are remembered as developed, had attained that zenith on the basis of importance accorded to education in those societies. The Romans, the Egyptians or closer home, Magadha or any empire for that matter boasted of rich lineage of scholars and universities which built a solid intellectual foundation and a progressive outlook for the society.

  • Education not only provides an opportunity for development in numerous spheres but also contributes to the standard of living.
  • Education of our culture and values should not take a back seat in this era of modernisation.
  • We must encourage at all levels an understanding of our tradition as part of our education, for a holistic development.

The effectiveness of this can be seen in people to people contacts with our neighbouring country, which help us to enhance our international relations. Education has been part and parcel of human life ever since antiquity because it implies cultivation of the mind to make life tolerable and the acquisition of skills for making it possible.

Today, education has become the basic necessity of human beings, as education equips them with the knowledge necessary to face the challenges of life. Nelson Mandela aptly said that “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”. Education, today, is the foundation on which the pillars of modern society rest.

There is no denying the fact that in today’s competitive era education has become a major part not only for human kind but also for a country’s development because it plays an important role in social and economic progress. If a person wants to get success and progress in his life, he should be educated.

  1. In the same way, if a nation wants development, the country must have more developed education and educated people.
  2. Education should remain the focus of governments, ahead of their political agendas.
  3. Not only more policies but their effective implementation are also essential to the latter.
  4. Some modifications in our educational system are required to encourage talent-based and growth-oriented teachings.

This would be a welcome step. : ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPMENT
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Which type of education is most important for the development of human resources?

Human resource through development. It is thus the process of adding value to individuals, teams or an organization as a human system.’ Accordingly, higher education and training are the major source of improving human resource.
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What is the role of education in human life?

Importance of Education – Education helps a person to get knowledge and improve confidence in life. It can help you improve your career and your personal growth. An educated person can become a great citizen in society. It helps you to take the right decisions in life.

Safety Against Crime : The chances of an educated person getting involved in crime or criminal acts are very low. An educated person is well aware of his/ her surroundings and is less susceptible to getting cheated or fooled. Women’s Empowerment: The empowerment of women is an essential pillar to optimize the good functioning of our society and nation as a whole. We can break old customs like child marriage, sati, dowry, etc only by educating the men and women of our nation. The fundamental right of Right to Freedom and Expression can only be achieved if the women of our country are educated and empowered. We can win the fight against the many social evils. Removing Poverty: Education is pivotal in removing poverty from our society and our country. The clutches of poverty are very harsh and one of the main factors behind all the problems of our society. If a person is well educated, he/she can get a good job and earn money to sustain his/ her family. Preventing War and Terrorism: Education teaches everyone the importance of peace and brotherhood. The importance of staying united and spreading love is the need of the hour. To achieve world peace and prevent war and terrorism, education is important. Maintaining Law and Order: A good political ideology can only be developed if the citizens of our country are educated and taught the importance of following and respecting the law and order of our country. Law-abiding citizens contribute majorly to improving and sustaining the law and order of the country and the world.

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What is the relationship between human development and education?

Why this pairing works – Human development is inherently linked with education. It requires the ongoing learning of several disciplines as they pertain to each person and their individual case. If you’re a lifelong learner, this field offers a wonderful arena to continue your research and study regardless of what field you decide to pursue.
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How does investment in education and health lead to human capital formation?

Investment in education and on-the-job training helps to impart these skills and enhance the knowledge base and thus helps in the absorption of new technologies which leads to higher production and thus economic growth. Thus it is evident that human capital contributes to economic growth in various ways.
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Is health and education human capital?

II. HCI Analysis – 17. How has the Human Capital Index evolved since its launch in 2018? The HCI was first launched at Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group in October 2018, and the methodology used in 2018 remains the same used in the update released in September 2020.

The 2020 update provided more recent data for all the components of the index, expanded the coverage of the index to more countries, provided additional gender disaggregation, and allowed the measurement of progress in human capital over time by comparing 2020 HCI data against past HCI data. Importantly, the 2020 update of the global HCI serves as a “snapshot” of human capital right up to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In addition to the global update that measures country-level data, HCI data have been further analyzed (disaggregated) i) sub-nationally as well as ii) by socioeconomic status. More information on these exercises can be found in: ” Insights from Disaggregating the Human Capital Index “.

  1. Subnational disaggregation of the HCI data has been done for over 20 countries and can be calculated at any subnational level with relevant representative data.
  2. For the socioeconomically disaggregated HCI (SES-HCI), Policy Research Working Paper 9020 by D’Souza, Gatti, and Kraay is the original paper describing the full methodology.

SES-HCI data is currently available for over 50 countries (mostly low-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries).18. What does the Human Capital Index show for girls and boys? Sex disaggregation is strengthened in the 2020 HCI. In the 2020 version, the HCI can be calculated separately for boys and girls for 153 of the 174 countries included in the index, compared with 126 of 157 countries in the 2018 index.

  1. In addition, the 2020 HCI calculates HCI for the year 2010 and the HCI can be calculated separately for boys and girls for 90 of the 103 countries included in the 2010 index.
  2. Lack of sex-disaggregated test score data prevents this in the remaining countries.
  3. A disproportionate share of these are low-income countries, emphasizing the need to continue to invest in better data systems.

Many countries have made progress in reducing differences between girls’ and boys’ human capital outcomes. In most countries, the distance to the human capital frontier for children overall is much larger than the remaining gaps between boys and girls.

In education, girls in middle- and high-income countries have largely caught up with or even passed boys in enrollment and learning. And in some dimensions of the index related to health, most countries show a slight advantage for girls over boys. The 2020 edition of the HCI is limited in scope and does not capture some important differences between girls’ and boys’ human capital outcomes.

It does not, for example, measure the prevalence of sex-selective abortion and missing girls. It relies on broad proxies for the disease environment, which by themselves say little about how gender roles and relations between males and females shape that environment.

  1. Girls continue to face greater challenges in dimensions not captured by the HCI.
  2. Child marriage, household responsibilities, teenage pregnancies, and gender-based violence in schools pose challenges in keeping girls enrolled, especially in low-income settings.
  3. While girls’ enrollment has increased, attendance and completion remain a challenge—especially at the secondary level—for both girls and boys.

When girls grow up and enter the labor market, they face additional challenges in realizing the returns to their human capital. These include occupational sex segregation, lack of childcare and adequate leave policies, sexual harassment and unsafe transportation, differential constraints in access to finance and markets, and legal/regulatory barriers that hinder women’s ability to start and grow firms.

  1. These constraints need to be addressed for all people to be able to reap the returns to human capital investment.
  2. The newly developed utilization-adjusted HCI (UHCI) proposes an adjustment to the HCI that captures the differential labor market participation rates of men and women, which show that a larger proportion of female human capital is left unutilized due to lower employment and labor force participation rates in many countries.19.

How has COVID-19 affected the Human Capital Index? COVID-19 is placing countries’ hard-won human capital gains at risk. A lesson from past pandemics and crises is that their effects are not only felt by those directly impacted, but often ripple across populations and, in many cases, across generations.

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The HCI methodology can be used to quantify some of the potential impacts of COVID-19 on the future human capital of children and youth. For young children—those born during the pandemic or who are currently under the age of five—disruptions to health systems, reduced access to care, and family income losses will materialize as increased child mortality, malnutrition, and stunting.

Because stunting and educational outcomes are closely intertwined, the pandemic risks durably setting back children’s learning outcomes later in life. According to early HCI-based simulations, in low-income countries, young children can expect their human capital to be about 1 percent lower than it would have been in the absence of COVID-19.

At the height of the pandemic, close to 1.6 billion children worldwide were out of school. For most children of school age, the pandemic meant that formal teaching and learning was no longer happening face to face. Since the ability to offer and access distance learning options differs across countries, and even within countries, considerable losses in schooling and learning can be anticipated.

The income shocks associated with COVID-19 will also force many children to drop out of school. Putting these effects together suggests that the pandemic could reduce global average learning-adjusted years of school by half a year, from 7.8 to 7.3 years.

  1. Translated into the terms of the HCI itself, this loss means a drop of almost 4.5 percent in the HCI of the current cohort of children.
  2. For a country with an HCI of 0.50, this signifies a drop of 0.025 HCI points, a reduction of the same order of magnitude as the HCI increase that many countries have achieved over the past decade.

Without a strong policy response now, the pandemic’s negative human capital effects will likely continue to reduce countries’ productivity and growth prospects for decades. In 20 years, roughly 46 percent of the workforce in a typical country (people aged 20 to 65 years) will be composed of individuals who were either in school or under the age of five during the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • A typical country at that time could still show a loss in its HCI of almost 1 full HCI point (0.01) due to COVID-19.
  • That is, even as a temporary shock, the COVID-19 pandemic could still leave current cohorts of children behind for the rest of their lives.20.
  • What is the Utilization-Adjusted Human Capital Index? In many countries, when today’s child becomes a future worker, she may not be able to find a job, and even if she can, it might not be a job where she can fully use her skills and cognitive abilities to increase her productivity.

In these cases, her human capital can be considered underutilized. Recognizing the importance of this pattern both for individual people and for policy, the Utilization-Adjusted Human Capital Index (UHCI) adjusts the HCI for labor market underutilization of human capital.

  • It can be calculated for more than 160 countries ( Pennings 2020 ).
  • The UHCI can be measured in two ways.
  • In the “basic UHCI”, utilization is measured as the fraction of the working-age population that is employed.
  • While this measure is simple and intuitive, it is not able to capture the fact that a large share of employment in developing countries is in jobs where workers may not be able to fully use their human capital to increase their productivity.

The “full UHCI” adjusts for this by introducing the concept of “better employment”—defined as non-agricultural employees, plus employers—which are the types of jobs that are common in high-productivity countries. The full utilization rate depends on the fraction of a country’s working-age population in “better employment”.

  • Countries with higher HCI scores also face larger utilization penalties if they show low rates of better employment, as they have more human capital to underutilize.
  • While the different methodologies produce different scores for some individual countries, the basic and full measures yield broadly similar utilization rates across country-income groups and regions, and in general.

Utilization rates average around 0.6, but they follow U-shaped curves when plotted against per capita income across countries, being lowest over a wider range of lower-middle-income countries. The analysis of underutilization suggests that in a world with complete human capital and complete utilization of that human capital, long-run per capita incomes could almost triple.

Both UHCIs reveal starkly different gender gaps from those calculated using the HCI. While the HCI is roughly equal for boys and girls, with a slight advantage for girls on average, UHCIs are lower for females than males in nearly all countries, driven by lower utilization rates. Basic utilization (employment) rates are 20 percentage points lower for women than men in general, and with a gap of more than 40 percentage points in the Middle East and North Africa and South Asia regions.

Female employment rates follow strongly U-shaped curves when plotted against countries’ levels of income, whereas male employment rates are much flatter, and with less dispersion across countries. The gender gap is also present in the full utilization rate, though it is smaller.

  • These results suggest that, while gender gaps in human capital in childhood and adolescence have closed in the last two decades (especially for education), major challenges remain to translate these gains into opportunities for women.21.
  • How does the Human Capital Index differ from UNDP’s Human Development Index ? UNDP’s pioneering Human Development Index is a summary measure of average achievement along key dimensions of human development—a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable, and having a decent standard of living.

While both indices spotlight human capabilities as central to national development, the Human Capital Index also strengthens the economic case for investing in people. The two are highly complementary but differ in the way they are formulated. The Human Capital Index links selected human capital outcomes with productivity and income levels.

  1. It is a forward-looking measure of how current health and education outcomes (including a new measure of learning-adjusted years of school) will shape productivity for the next generation of workers.22.
  2. How does the Human Capital Index relate to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? The components of the index (survival, schooling, and health) have direct links with at least three of the global goals that countries around the world have set to achieve by 2030.

Survival to Age 5: By including under-5 mortality, the index links to SDG target 3.2—to reduce neonatal mortality to 12 per 1,000 live births or lower and under-5 mortality to 25 per 1,000 live births or lower. Learning-Adjusted Years of School: The index introduces this innovative measurement of learning, which supports SDG 4.1—to ensure, among other things, the completion of equitable and good-quality primary and secondary education.

  1. By tracking changes in the expected years of quality-adjusted education, countries will be able to monitor their achievement toward this education target.
  2. Health: The index includes the adult survival rate and the prevalence of childhood stunting.
  3. The adult survival rate represents the probability that a 15-year-old will survive to age 60.

To improve this indicator, countries will have to work on reducing causes of premature mortality, which will also help achieve SDG target 3.4. Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 is one of the key indicators for achievement of SDG target 2.2, which aims to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030.

The index aims to draw attention to a wide range of actions across multiple sectors that can build human capital and accelerate progress towards the SDGs.23. Does the Human Capital Index capture all aspects of human capital? Everything captured by the HCI is important, but not everything that is important for human capital development is captured by the HCI.

There is scope for improvement and expansion over time. Beginning in October 2020, the HCI country briefs include a range of carefully selected complementary indicators that present the HCI in a broader regional and country human capital perspective. For human capital, as in all areas of development data, the World Bank Group is engaging closely with member countries to help build capacity and improve data quality.
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What is the role of education in economic development explain?

What function does education play in economic development? – As follows, education has an important influence on economic development:

Education enhances people’s access to current and scientific concepts.It improves people’s efficiency and capacity to absorb new technologies.It raises knowledge of potential possibilities and labor mobility.Education helps people obtain information, skills, and attitudes that will allow them to grasp societal changes and scientific advances.Education investment is one of the primary sources of human capital that enables inventions and discoveries.A country’s ability to adopt sophisticated technologies is aided by a well-educated labor population.

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What is the role of HCF?

Revision Notes for Class 12 Human Capital Formation in India – Human capital refers to the stock of skill, ability, expertie, education and knowledge in a nation at a point of time. Physical capital refers to assets which themselves have been manufactured and are used for production of other goods and services. Difference between Physical Capital and Human Capital:-

Physical Capital Human Capital
It is tangible It is intangible.
It is separable from its owners. It cannot be separated from its owners.
It is perfectly mobile between the countries. Its mobility is restricted by nationality and culture.
It depreciates over time due to constant use or due to change in technology. It though depreciates with ageing but can be made up through continuous investment in education and health.
It creates only private benefit. It creates private benefit as well as social benefit.

Human capital formation is the process of adding to the stock of human capital over a period of time. Sources of human capital formation. (i) Expenditure on education. (ii) Expenditure on health. (iii) On the job training. (iv) Study programmes for adults.

V) Migration and expenditure on information. Human Resource Development:- It refers to the development of the set of individual that makes up the workforce of an organisation, business sector or economy. Role of human capital formation in economic growth. (i) Raises production (ii) Change in emotional and physical environment of growth.

(iii) Improves quality of life. (iv) Raises life expectancy. (v) Innovative skills. (vi) Raises social justice and equality. Problems facing human capital formation. (i) Rising population (ii) High regional and gender inequality. (iii) Brain drain (iv) Insufficient man power planning.

(v) Insufficient on the job training in agriculture (vi) High poverty levels (vii) Low academic standards. Education :- It implies the process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools, colleges, to improve knowledge and develop skills. Importance and objectives of education (i) Education produces good citizens.

(ii) Education facilitates use of resources in the country. (iii) Develops science and technology. (iv) Expands mental horizon of the people. (v) Promotes cultural standard of the citizens. (vi) Develops human personality. Problems relating to development of education in India (i) Large number of illiterates.

(ii) Inadequate vocationalisation. (iii) Gender bias. (iv) Low rural access level. (v) Low government expenditure on education. Human capital formation in India (i) The seventh five year plan stressed upon the importance of human capital. (ii) In India, ministry of education at the Centre and state level, NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training), UGC (University Grant commission), AICTE (All India Council of Technical Education) regulate the education sector.

(iii) In India, Ministry of Health at the Union and the State level and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) regulate the health sector. (iv) World Bank states that India will become the knowledge economy. Also if India uses its knowledge as much as Ireland does, than the per capita income will rise by $ 3000 by the year 2020.

  1. Interrelationship between human capital formation and economic growth Human capital formation raises the process of Economic Growth and economic growth raises the process of human capital formation.
  2. I) Rise in human capital raise economic growth Rise in Human Capital ↓ Modern attitude and outlook, better quality of life, Higher life expectancy ↓ More Efficiency ↓ More Production ↓ More economic growth (ii) Rise in economic growth raises human capital formation Rise in Economic Growth ↓ Rise in per capita income ↓ More investment in education and health ↓ Rise in human capital EDUCATION SECTOR IN INDIA 1.

Elementary education: (A) Elementary education covers students from class 1 to class 8 (primary and middle) in the age-group of 6 to 14 years. The number of primary and middle schools has considerably increased from 2.23 lakhs (in 1950-51) to 11.92 lakhs (in 2011-12).
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What are the role of education and health in human capital formation any five points?

Education improves productivity and prosperity, and also improve enriched life experience. It does not only contribute towards the growth of the people but also the development of society as a whole. Education increases national income and other cultural richness.
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What are the main role of human capital?

What is the relationship between human capital and the economy? – Human capital allows an economy to grow. When human capital increases in areas such as science, education, and management, it leads to increases in innovation, social well-being, equality, increased productivity, improved rates of participation, all of which contribute to economic growth.
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Why is human capital important in healthcare?

Human Capital Management a Winning Strategy for Healthcare – Having a solid human capital management strategy can help healthcare organizations attract, retain, and engage the workforce and ensure employees have the knowledge and skills that will allow them to contribute at optimal levels.
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