Who Emphasized That Education Is A Social Process
by TeachThought Staff What did John Dewey believe about education? What were his views on experiential and interactive learning and their role in teaching and learning? As always, there’s a lot to understand. John Dewey (1859–1952) developed extraordinarily influential educational and social theories that had a lasting influence on psychology, pedagogy, and political philosophy among other fields.

Stanford University explained that because Dewey “typically took a genealogical approach that couched his own view within the larger history of philosophy, one may also find a fully developed metaphilosophy in his work.” One way to think of his ideas, then, is unifying and comprehensive, gathering otherwise distinct fields and bringing them together in service of the concept of teaching children how to live better in the present rather than specutalitvely preparing them for a future we can’t predict.

See also 15 Self-Guided Reading Responses For Non-Fiction Texts Major Works By John Dewey My Pedagogic Creed (1897) The Primary-Education Fetich (1898) The School and Society The Child and the Curriculum Democracy and Education Schools of Tomorrow (1915) Experience and Education (1938) What Did John Dewey Believe About Teaching And Learning? What was the pedagogy of John Dewey? Put briefly, Dewey believed that learning was socially constructed, and that brain-based pedagogy (not his words) should place children, rather than curriculum and institutions, at its center.

  1. Effective learning required students to use previous (and prevailing) experiences to create new meaning–that is, to ‘learn.’ Most of Dewey’s work is characterized by his views on education itself, including its role in citizenship and democracy.
  2. But in terms of pedagogy, he is largely known for his emphasis on experiential learning, social learning, and a basic Constructivist approach to pedagogy, not to mention consistent support for the idea of self-knowledge, inquiry-based learning, and even self-directed learning, saying, “To prepare him for the future life means to give him command of himself” and considered education to be a “process of living and not a preparation for future living.” Further, his philosophy on pedagogy would align strongly with the gradual release of responsibility model that while still in need of a ‘more knowledgeable other’ (the teacher) would create learning experiences designed to result in the autonomy and self-efficacy of a student as they master content.

What Dewey believed about ‘pedagogy’ depends on what parts of his work you want to unpack, but broadly speaking, he was a constructivist who pushed for a ‘human’ education experience that leveraged communal constructivism and the role of inquiry and curiosity in the active participation of a student in their own education.

Further, his social constructivist theories pre-date those of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky (who are arguably more well-known for these ideas), and he lamented even around the turn of the century the problems with ‘traditional’ approaches to pedagogy that focused on institutional curriculum, instructional practices, and assessment patterns.

Wikipedia’s entry on Dewey provides a succinct overview of his work: “Dewey continually argues that education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place.

In addition, he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning.” “He argues that in order for education to be most effective, content must be presented in a way that allows the student to relate the information to prior experiences, thus deepening the connection with this new knowledge.

In order to rectify this dilemma, Dewey advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student. He notes that “the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process.

  • Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction” (Dewey, 1902, p.16).
  • It is through this reasoning that Dewey became one of the most famous proponents of hands-on learning or experiential education.” Education is a social process.

According to the creed, it should not be used for the purposes of preparation for living in the future. Dewey said, “I believe that education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living.” We can build a child’s self-esteem in not only the classroom but in all aspects of his or her life.”
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Who said that education is a social process?

Dewey (1958) stated, ‘society must have a type of education which gives individuals personal interest in social relationships and control and the habits of minds which secure social changes without introducing disorder’ (p.99; emphasis added).
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Who emphasizes education should be a social process?

– Karl Mager (1810 – 1858) is often identified as the one who coined the term social pedagogy. He held the belief that education should focus on the acquisition of knowledge but also of culture through society and should orient its activities to benefit the community. It also implies that knowledge should not solely come from individuals but also from the larger concept of society.
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WHO emphasized that education should be a social progress in India?

Free Bihar STET 2019: Official Paper 1 50 Questions 50 Marks 50 Mins Mahatma Gandhi has emphasized the idea of “education through productive work” as the Wardha Scheme of Basic Education is the dynamic side of Gandhi’s education al philosophy. It emphasized making productive crafts as the medium of education to develop children’s minds, bodies, and souls to make them able to meet their needs in the future.

providing free and compulsory education to the age group of 7-14 years. putting local craft as the center of education to promote economic growth. making child productive through purposeful creative activities like embroidery, etc. making children self-reliant to use their knowledge, talents, and skills to sustain themselves, etc. enabling children to l earn a productive craft to meet his future needs of life by adopting some industry or business.


Maria Montessori He has proposed an approach to learning named ‘Montessori Method’ which emphasizes making learning fun and burden-free by including self-directed activities.
Swami Vivekananda He has founded Ramakrishna Mission in May 1897 to spread the teachings of Vedanta and to improve the social conditions of Indian people.
Rabindranath Tagore He has founded Shantiniketan School in which classes were provided under trees in order to connect learners with nature.

Hence, it could be concluded that Mahatma Gandhi has emphasized the idea of “education through productive work”. Latest Bihar STET Updates Last updated on Nov 24, 2022 Bihar STET (State Teacher Eligibility Test) Exam Dates Out. The application process for the Bihar STET exam will begin on 1st February 2023 and go on till 14th February 2023.
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Why is education called a social process?

Answer: Education is the social process by which individual learns the things necessary to fit him to the social life of his society. Education is primarily deliberate learning which fits the individual for his adult role in society. As Counts and Mead phrase it, education is an induction into the learner’s culture.
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What is social process in education?

Education is the social process by which individual learns the things necessary to fit him to the social life of his society. Thus, education is both acquisition of knowledge or art of teaching and learning of values, norms and skills.
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What is John Dewey’s concept of education?

Dewey thought that effective education came primarily through social interactions and that the school setting should be considered a social institution (Flinders & Thornton, 2013). He considered education to be a ‘ process of living and not a preparation for future living ‘ (Flinders & Thornton, 2013, p.
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What is John Dewey’s theory called?

John Dewey was born in Vermont in 1859. He was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer who has long been considered one of the founders of a theory he referred to as instrumentalism, also called pragmatism.
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Who is the father of social aims of education?

Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education – Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT ( CBSE ) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions, Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 11 Education Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here 10.

What is meant by education for individuality? How far do you accept this view? Ans: According to Percy Nunn the ardent advocates of individuality life aims at the fullest development of individuality and therefore education should aim at developing the individuality of the child. In his words “educational efforts, it would seem be limited to securing for every one the conditions under which individuality is most completely developed, that is to enabling him to make his original contribution to the variegated whole of human life as fully and as truly characteristics as his nature permits, the from of contribution being left to the individual as something which each must in living an by living forge out himself.

” The individualistic ideal of education emphasises individuals excellence and personal self-realisations. I accept this view due to its some advantages. These are : (1) Biological support : The biologists believe that every individual is different from the other.

  1. In the words of prof.G.
  2. Thompson, “Education is for the individual, its function being to enable the individual to survive and live out its complete life.
  3. Education is imparted to preserve the individual life.
  4. Community exists for the individual, not the individual for the community.
  5. Therefore, individual and not society should be the centre of all educational efforts and activities :” (2) Naturalists’ support : Naturalists like Nunn and Rousseau believe that the aim of education should be the autonomous development of the individual.

They stress that education should be imparted according to the nature of the individual. (3) Psychologists ‘ support : According to psychology, every individual has his own unique personality. Every individual differs from the other in terms of mental abilities and talents.

  1. The task of education should be to help in the development of the innate powers of an individual.
  2. 4) Spiritualists’ support : The spiritualist believes that every individual is a separate entity and responsible for his own actions.
  3. The chain task of education should therefore, be to help the individual in self-realisation.11.
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Explain the social aim of education with its merits and demerits. Ans: John Dewey, the pragmatic philosopher has put forward a broad aim of education which is known as the socialistic aim. According to this socialistic theory the claims of society are always above the claims of the individual members composing the society.

  • Therefore, every scheme of education should try to prepare individuals for social living.
  • In fact the school should be a “miniature society” and everything taught in the school should have social bearing.
  • Education is really a strong instrument of social change.
  • The champions of these ideals maintain that society as a proper personal entity has the absolute right to dictate what should be the intimate aim of education.

Every individual should try to contribute as far practicable towards social welfare and social progress. Merits of social aim : Educationists have stressed on the social aim of education for the following reasons : (1) Man is a social animal and therefore, he develops through social contacts.

It is not possible for an individual to live without society. Raymonth believes that the ‘isolated individual is a figment of the imagination ‘. (2) John Dewey, the chief supporter of this aim believes that education should develop in each and every individual social efficiency which must be achieved by the positive use of individual powers and capacities in social occupations.

Such a person is not a burden on society but contributes to its developments. He also follows the moral and social standards of conduct. (3) Gandhi who also supported this aim had formulated the basic scheme with the objective of making people realise that education was not only for their individual benefits but also for the needs of a predominantly rural and agrarian population.

Demerits of social aim: (1) Some educationists are of the view that the social basis of human nature is not instinctive but habitual. We can change the habit of an individual, but not his instincts. Education helps us to the develop good habits to lead a healthy social life. (2) Social aim if carried to the extreme reduces the individual to a mere entity.

(3) The extreme notion of the all powerful state or society ignores the legitimate needs, desires and interests of the individual and suppresses his creative power. (4) It makes the individual only a tool in the hands of the govt, and demands unquestioning obedience and loyalty from the individual.

Sl. No. Contents
Chapter 1 Concept and Aims of Education
Chapter 2 Stages of Human Development
Chapter 3 School and its Organizations
Chapter 4 (A) Psychology and Education
Chapter 4 (B) Education Psychology and its Significance
Chapter 5 Physical Basis of Mental Life
Chapter 6 Bases and Direction of Human Behaviour
Chapter 7 Primary Education in India and Assam

12. Make a difference between individual and social aim of Education. Ans: The difference between individuals and social aim of education can be discussed under the following points: (1) Basis : Individual aim of education is based on biological heredity of man.

While the social aim of education is based on social heredity of man. (2) Power of freedom : Individuals aim of education entrust complete freedom to the individual. While the social aim of education entrust complete freedom and power to the state. (3) Believes : Individual aims of education believe social development as a sub originate to the individual development.

While the social aim of education believes individual development as a sub-originate to the social development. (4) Dependent : Individual aim of education is dependent on the philosophy of naturalism. The social aim of education depends on the physiology of pragmatism.13.

The individual and social aim of education are not contradictory but complementary to each other. Discuss the statement. Ans: As man is potentially divine, education should help the individual to develop his potentialities to such an extent that he is in a position to perfect himself. Man should therefore be educated as man.

If education fails to realize the unique potentialities of each man, it will harm him as well as the society. Progressive thinkers feel that when individuals are developed society will automatically be developed. Great socio-culture changes have been brought in this world by the personal influencing of exceptional individuals.

  • For example, no one can deny the contribution of people like Buddha.
  • Mahatma Gandhi, Lenin, Martin Luther King etc.
  • Have had tremendous influence on the life of the people.
  • People live these create society and preserve, purify and promote and transmit culture to the young generation.
  • Therefore, the aim of education should be to develop individuality.

Bertrand Russell rightly said that, “Education of the individual is a fair thing than the education of the citizen. ” By instinct, man is social. The sociological approach stresses that the development of an individual should be thought of in relation to his society and culture.

Dewey maintained that education should produce socially efficient individuals who are socially aware and culturally refined. Every individual in the society must be vocationally efficient or else he will be a parasite in the society. He should also be tolerant towards others and he is aware about the rights and duties of a citizen.

Hence, the social aim of education gives more importance to social heredity. The individual and social aims of education are contradictory to each other. Some one say that a synthesis of education for individuality and education for the development of the state is not possible.

  • In their extreme from both the aims are undesirable and not at all.
  • Conducive for the enhancement of either the individual or the society because unrestricted freedom produces undisciplined and selfish people and on the other hand subordination of individuals by the state results in the suppression of one’s potentialities.
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In reality, however, the argument that the two aims are contradictory is baseless. Events in history have proved that there have been unparalleled individual achievements in the field of art, literature, science, philosophy etc. Percy Nunn one of the chief exponents if the individual aim admitted that ‘individuality develops only in a social environment where it can feed on common interests and common activities “.

  1. Aristotle also said that, “The individual human being was not only a rational but a social and political animal, and because of this he had always lived in some kind of society.
  2. Thus it follows that a person develops as a human being in a community, a family, a village or in a city state.
  3. Neither the individual nor the society should be regarded as superior to each other.

Instead the individual is essential for the society and the latter is necessary for the individual. John Dewey rightly said that, ‘The individual who is able to be educated is a social individual and the society is an organic union of individuals.14. What is the vocational aim of education? What makes this aim so important for society.

Ans: One of the most important aims of education in the present society is the vocational aim. In today’s world earning one’s livelihood is considered to be the most honourable experience of his life. Parents expect their children to be educated enough to earn a respectable being this makes them self-sufficient in life and consequently develops self satisfaction, mental and moral strength and self confidence vocational aim of education makes education a purposely activity.

It helps to develop various interests and arouses thoughts and feelings in the minds of the young students. Vocational aim again helps in placing a person in the right vocation and instills the right attitude to work. This aim increases the industrial competency of a person without which he becomes a parasite in the society.

  1. Advancement of science and technology and rapid industrialization has emphasized the importance of the vocational aim of education.
  2. When the people of a national become vocationally efficient, there is economic progress and consequently political and social stability.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi said “True education ought to be for children a kind of insurance against unemployment”.

So preparation for a vocational is an important part of our education. Vocational education bridges the gulf between the rich and poor people. The education of the advanced countries lay special emphasis on developing the vocational efficiency of the people.

  • According to John Dewey “Education is meaningful only when it aims at some vocation or employment.” Today’s child should grow up to be a responsible citizen tomorrow and one of his main responsibilities is to earn a living.
  • Hence the importance of the vocational aim of education cannot be ignored.15.

What should be the aim of education in a democracy? Ans: The word Democracy is derived from two Greek words – “Demos” (which means people) and “kratos’ ‘ (which means power), From this we can easily define democracy as the power of the people. Henderson once remarked that ‘Democracy is based upon infinite value and worth of human personality and belief that men are capable of managing their own affairs in such a way as to promote the welfare of all and that they should have the freedom to do so.

  1. The basic principle underlying democracy is the importance of individuality and respect for his freedom.
  2. The main characteristic of democracy as: (1) Affirming the dignity of the individual.
  3. 2) Equality (3) Liberty (4) Fraternity According to the University commission education is the great test instrument of social emancipation.

The relationship between education and democracy is education of the masses. Because the success of democracy depends upon the civic consciousness of the people regarding various problems confronting the society. The democracy and the responsibility of the school are great.

  1. Therefore the aims of education is democracy must be formulated on the basis of the following viz.
  2. 1) Widespread expansion of education.
  3. 2) Preparing future citizens for economic productivity and self dependence.
  4. 3) Training for leadership.
  5. 4) Training for good citizenship.
  6. 5) Aiming at complete development of personality.

(6) Freedom for thought and actions. (7) Training for national discipline. (8) Educating for national integration. (9) Educating for social emancipation. (10) Preparing for international understanding. (11) Accelerating the process of modernization. (12) Educating for social equality and justice. Who Emphasized That Education Is A Social Process Hi, I’m Dev Kirtonia, Part-Time Blogger, Web Designer & Digital Marketer. Founder of Dev Library. A website that provides all SCERT, NCERT, and BA, B.com, B.Sc with Post Graduate Notes & Suggestions, Novel, eBooks, Biography, Study Materials, and more. Pages: 1 2 3
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What is Herbert Spencer philosophy of education?

In teaching methods, Spencer advocated the automatic learning based on students and emphasized the role of interest in the process of teaching, In the aspect of moral education, Spencer put forward that individual self preservation is the most important moral principle and coined the moral evolution formula.
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